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Callithrix geoffroyi

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CALLITRICHIDAE

Scientific Name: Callithrix geoffroyi
Species Authority: (É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812)
Common Name(s):
English Geoffroy’s Tufted-ear Marmoset, White-faced Marmoset, Geoffroy's Marmoset, Geoffroy's Tufted-ear Marmoset, White-fronted Marmoset
Spanish Tití De Caba Blanca
Taxonomic Notes: In the past, the eastern Brazilian marmosets (penicillata É. Geoffroy, 1812, geoffroyi É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812, aurita É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812, and flaviceps Thomas, 1903) of the “jacchus group” were considered to be subspecies of Callithrix jacchus, following Hershkovitz (1977). All are now considered to be full species (see Coimbra-Filho 1984, Mittermeier et al. 1988, Marroig et al. 2004, Coimbra-Filho et al.. 2006).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Rylands, A.B. & Mendes, S.L.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is considered to be Least Concern as it is relatively abundant, being present in a number of protected areas, and because the current rate of decline is not sufficient to qualify it for listing in a threatened category.
History:
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable (Baillie and Groombridge 1996)
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Geoffroy’s Marmoset occurs in the state of Espírito Santo and the forested eastern and north-eastern part of Minas Gerais, north as far as the Rios Jequitinhonha and Araçuaí and south to near the state border of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (Ávila-Pires 1969; Hershkovitz 1977; Coimbra-Filho 1984; Rylands et al. 1988). The populations just south of the Rio Jequitinhonha resulted from animals released near its mouth, at Belmonte, around 1975 (Coimbra-Filho 1986c). From there it spread eastward, and today also occurs in gallery forests throughout the region of dry thorn scrub (caatinga) of the middle reaches of the river (Rylands et al. 1988). Vivo (1991) limits it to the east of the Serra do Espinhaço in Minas Gerais. It has been recorded from the eastern slopes of Serra do Cipó, a southerly section of the Serra do Espinhaço range, at an altitude of 1,274 m (Oliveira et al. 2003). Hybrid populations of C. penicillata and C. geoffroyi have been observed in some parts of the Serra da Piedade along the Rio Piracicaba, affluent of the upper Rio Doce, where the Atlantic coastal forest gives way to the cerrado (Coimbra-Filho et al. 1993; Passamani et al. 1997). The range of C. geoffroyi overlaps with C. flaviceps (see below) in southern Espírito Santo (south of the Rio Doce) and south-eastern Minas Gerais. However, C. geoffroyi is generally restricted to lowland areas, below 500–700 m, and C. flaviceps to altitudes above 400–500 m (Coimbra-Filho 1971; Coimbra-Filho et al. 1981). Hershkovitz (1977) asserted that the highest recorded locality for C. geoffroyi is Santa Teresa, 659 m above sea level, but Mendes (1993, 1997a) has observed mixed bands of C. geoffroyi and C. flaviceps at altitudes of 800 m. Hybrid populations have been recorded for intermediate elevations (Mendes 1993, 1997a).
Countries:
Native:
Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina - Introduced)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Chiarello (1995) recorded a density of 10.5 groups/km² and a total population of about 1,644 individuals in the Linhares Forest Reserve (21,800 ha) of the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, in northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Subsequently, Chiarello (1999) surveyed Callithrix geoffroyi in a number of areas in the state of Espírito Santo. In the Sooretama Biological Reserve (24,250 ha) he recorded encounter rates of 1.81 groups/10 km, and in the Linhares Forest Reserve, 2.16 groups/10 km. Densities were lower in the smaller forests of the Córrego do Veado Biological reserve (2,400 ha) and Córrego Grande Biological Reserve (1,504 ha), at 1.05 groups/10 km and 0.15 groups/10 km, respectively.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Occurs in lowland and sub-montane forest, and dry forest patches in desert scrub (the north of its range in the Jequitinonha valley) (Rylands et al. 1988; Passamani 1996).

Marmosets and tamarins are distinguished from the other monkeys of the New World by their small size, modified claws rather than nails on all digits except the big toe, the presence of two as opposed to three molar teeth in either side of each jaw, and by the occurrence of twin births. They eat fruits, flowers, nectar, plant exudates (gums, saps, latex) and animal prey (including frogs, snails, lizards, spiders and insects). Marmosets have morphological and behavioural adaptations for gouging trees trunks, branches and vines of certain species to stimulate the flow of gum, which they eat, and in some species form a notable component of the diet (Coimbra-Filho 1972; Rylands 1984). They live in extended family groups of between four and 15 individuals. Generally, only one female per group breeds during a particular breeding season. The groups defend home ranges 10-40 ha, the size depending on availability and distribution of foods and second-growth patches. Passamani and Rylands (2000b) recorded a home range of 23.3 ha, in a forest fragment of 119 ha surrounded by a Eucalyptus plantation, in the state of Espírito Santo.

Passamani (1996, 1998; Passamani and Rylands 2000a,b) studied the behaviour and ecology of a group of five C. geoffroyi in a forest fragment amongst Eucalyptus plantations of Aracruz Cellulose Cia., in Espirito Santo.

Size:
Males 359 g (n=46) (Rosenberger 1992).
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although considered an adaptable species, populations are declining because of widespread destruction of the Atlantic forest in the states of Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo. Less than 6.8% of the original area of Atlantic forest remains in the state of Minas Gerais (Fonseca 1985). Mittermeier et al. (1982) and Coimbra-Filho (1986c) recommended that this species be considered endangered, but Oliver and Santos (1991) found that although it was patchily distributed, it remained locally abundant, and concluded that the species is not seriously threatened at the present time. It is occasionally hunted for pets.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in a number of protected areas:

Minas Gerais
Serra do Cipo National Park (33,800 ha), Minas Gerais (Oliveira et al. 2003)
Fazenda Córrego de Areia Reserve (60 ha) (privately owned)

Espirito Santo
Córrego Grande Biological Reserve (1,504 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999)
Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve (2,392 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999)
Sooretama Biological Reserve (27,943 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999)
Comboios Biological Reserve (833 ha) (Mendes 1991)
Duas Bocas State Reserve (2,910 ha) (Mendes 1991)
Linhares Forest Reserve (21,787 ha) (Mendes 1991; Chiarello 1999))
Goitacazes Forest Reserve (1,400 ha) (Mendes 1991)
Santa Lucia Biological Station (350 ha) (Mendes 1991)
Fazenda São Joaquim Reserve (Klabin Reserve) (1,505 ha)(Mendes 1991)
Its occurrence in the Monte Pascoal National Park is in some doubt, and Oliver and Santos (1991) reported that C. jacchus had possibly been introduced there.

Bahia
Porto Seguro Forest Reserve (6,069 ha)
Pau Brasil Experimental Station (900 ha)
Gregório Bondar Experimental Station (710 ha)

This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Citation: Rylands, A.B. & Mendes, S.L. 2008. Callithrix geoffroyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 October 2014.
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