|Scientific Name:||Callicebus personatus|
|Species Authority:||(É. Geoffroy, 1812)|
Callicebus personatus subspecies personatus (É. Geoffroy, 1812)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Up until the end of the twentieth century, what is now considered the C. personatus group consisted of a single species, with four subspecies (Hershkovitz 1988, 1990). Kobayashi and Langguth (1999) elevated the remaining taxa to the species level, resulting in a group of five species including Callicebus personatus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Veiga, L.M., Ferrari, S.F., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
This species is listed as Vulnerable due to a continuing and past decline exceeding 30% in the past 24 years (3 generations) inferred from conversion of forest habitat to agriculture.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil in the state of Espírito Santo, north-western Minas Gerais and northern Rio de Janeiro (Kinzey 1982; M. C. M. Kierulff in Rylands 1988; Oliver and Santos 1991; van Roosmalen et al. 2002). Callicebus personatus occurs further inland into north-western Minas Gerais, east at least as far as Teófilo Otoni (Kinzey 1982; Hershkovitz 1990) and the east (right) bank of the Rio Jequitinhonha (Rylands et al. 1988). The Rio Mucurí, to the north of the Rio Itaúnas, was identified as the northern limit by Hershkovitz (1990), but Oliver and Santos (1991) reported that C. melanochir may occur south of the lower Itaúnas as far as Barra Nova (18º54’S, 39º47’W). Oliver and Santos (1991) indicated that the region of the Rios Itaunas and Mucurí might be a zone of intergradation between personatus (to the south) and melanochir (to the north). Callicebus personatus occurs on the right bank of the Rio Jequitinhonha, but it remains unclear whether this, or another species of titi, occurs to the north-west of this river (van Roosmalen et al. 2002). The range of this species extends westwards along the Rio Doce valley into Minas Gerais as far as the Mantiqueira Mountains (Cosenza 1993). Hershkovitz (in litt. A. B. Rylands, January 1988) listed Buenópolis, near the Serra do Cabral (17º54’S, 44º11’W), north-western Minas Gerais, as a locality for C. personatus, but it was not included as a locality in his publication in 1990 (van Roosmalen et al. 2002). It is possible that the distribution of C. personatus is more restricted that previously supposed, since C. nigrifrons and not C. personatus was recorded at the frontier between Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, an area formerly considered to be within the range of C. personatus (Hirsch et al. 2005).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Chiarello and Melo (2001) report a mean density of 15.67 ± 6.51 (±SE) individuals/km².|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
An inhabitant of Brazil's Atlantic forest.
Titis are small primates, weighing from 800 to 1,300 g (Norconk 2007). Diet comprises mainly fruit pulp, leaves, insects and seeds. They form small, pair-bonded, territorial groups and are considered monogamous. A home range size of 10.7 to 12.3 km² and mean day range of approximately 1 km was reported for this species (Price and Piedade 2001a).
|Major Threat(s):||This species has a relatively small geographic range that coincides with the most densely populated region of Brazil, which has the longest history of European colonization. This has resulted in widespread deforestation and fragmentation, with very little remaining forest cover (estimated from between 5 to 10%). The reduction of available habitat for the eastern Brazilian titis is ongoing, mainly due to pressures for cattle ranching and agriculture. These economic activities, together with urbanization, are driven by the developmental goals of local governments. The resulting small, isolated populations of titis are exposed to demographic and genetic risks, although hunting pressure is probably negligible to moderate in most cases, given their small body size. Titis are also rarely kept as pets, in comparison with the larger-bodied capuchins (Cebus spp.) and the much smaller marmosets (Callithrix spp.) from the same region.|
The largest remaining population is in the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama and the Reserva Natural de Linhares.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Ferrari, S.F., Kierulff, C.M., de Oliveira, M.M. & Mendes, S.L. 2008. Callicebus personatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.|
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