Hibiscadelphus woodii 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Malvales Malvaceae

Scientific Name: Hibiscadelphus woodii
Species Authority: Lorence & W.L.Wagner
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-01
Assessor(s): Clark, M.
Reviewer(s): Walsh, S.
Contributor(s): Nyberg, B. & Wood, K.
This taxon is assessed as Extinct. It was only known from four individuals when it was first seen in 1991. It was last recorded in the wild in 1999 and the last remaining individual was observed to have died by August 2011 (Wood 2012). Its extinction was due to a variety of threats but especially the impacts of non-native plants and animals and probably human vandalism of the last remaining plant.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This taxon is a small tree that was discovered in 1991 in Hawaiʻi. It is known only from the site of discovery, in Kalalau Valley of the Na Pali Coast State Park on Kauaʻi. The genus Hibiscadelphus is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and all known species within the genus are either Extinct or Critically Endangered.

Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Only four trees have ever been found. Discovery of this new taxon was in 1991. No individuals have been seen since 1999.
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Hibiscadelphus woodii was a large shrub to small tree that grew on Metrosideros spp. dominated mesic cliff faces. Other associated native species included Chamaesyce celastroides var. hanapepensis, Nototrichium divaricatum, Melicope pallida, Carex meyenii, Panicum lineale, Lysimachia glutinosa, Bidens sandwicensis, and Artemisia australis.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threats in the area, that contributed to the extinction of this taxon, include feral goats and pigs and invasive, non-native plant species including Erigeron karvinskianum and Kalanchoe pinnata. Flower damage by nectar-robbing introduced Japanese White-eyes (Zosterops japonicus) and herbivory by rats had been observed. Falling rock and landslides were also a major threat (three individuals were recorded as being crushed by a large fallen boulder), as well as the loss of reproductive vigour due to a very limited number of individuals. Vandalism was expected to have occurred with the last remaining individual.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species is listed on the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Therefore, an Action Recovery Plan is in place. It was known only from four individuals, and while cuttings and seeds were collected, propagation was not successful (Wood 2012). This taxon is now extinct.

Citation: Clark, M. 2016. Hibiscadelphus woodii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T35153A83801779. . Downloaded on 27 October 2016.
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