Pinus peuce 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus peuce
Species Authority: Griseb.
Common Name(s):
English Balkan Pine, Macedonian Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-12
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Luscombe, D
Pinus peuce has a scattered distribution in the Balkans, with many subpopulations small and some very isolated. Its extent of occurrence is large, but its area of occupancy (here estimated on the basis of herbarium collections that cover ca. 75% of known localities) is below the threshold for Vulnerable. It is uncertain if the decline due to past exploitation and afforestation with Picea abies is still ongoing (if so apparently at a slower rate given that most localities known from the past are still occupied (Vidakovic 1991) so the species does not quite meet the criteria for listing as theratened (B2ab(v)). Hence its listing as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from southeastern Europe: Albania; western Bulgaria; Macedonia; Montenegro; northern Greece; and Serbia.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Bulgaria; Greece; Montenegro; Serbia (Serbia)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1280
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):2200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species is known from 17-20 localtions (subpopulations), some of which are isolated and small.


Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pinus peuce is a montane pine, growing between 600 m and 2,200 m above sea level and usually on silicate rock types. In Albania and Serbia it is also found on serpentine. It can grow on a variety of soil types, usually poor in nutrients and acidic to basic. In Grecian Macedonia it forms pure stands on gentle mountain slopes, interspersed with grassy glades and meadows. In most areas where it occurs, it is mixed with Picea abies and/or Abies alba / A. borisii-regis, with which it can compete due to relatively high shade tolerance.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Balkan Pine is a minor timber tree in the Balkans; it is now commonly planted for forestry in the region and natural stands are less intensively exploited than in the past. The wood is used only locally for carpentry and furniture and can be rather knotty, but when plantation-grown trees come of age to be harvested, this tendency will be reduced. Inter-specific hybrids with other species in subsection Strobus have been tested in forestry nurseries for growth performance. Balkan Pine, in contrast with several other species, is resistant to the pathogenic fungus Cronartium ribicola (Basidiomycota) and hybrids may also become resistant to the disease. In horticulture it has long been used, being first introduced north of the Alps in Germany in 1863. It is mostly grown as a 'species tree' for large gardens and parks; only a limited number of cultivars, mostly producing dwarfed forms, is known.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is probably a Tertiary relict that has survived severe contractions of its range due to Alpine glaciations during the Pleistocene. Its current range consists of two disjunct populations, one in the west centered in Albania and one in the east in W Bulgaria. The two populations have sometimes been viewed as two distinct varieties, with "Pinus peuce var. vermiculata Christ" (cited in Vidakovic, 1991: 532 but original publication not traced) in Bulgaria, but this is not generally accepted as the stated differences: length of leaves and cones, are continuous and partly overlapping. Extensive exploitation in the past has undoubtedly had an impact on its abundance but no details of a possible reduction are known.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in several protected areas in the Balkan mountains.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus peuce. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T34193A2850246. . Downloaded on 18 August 2017.
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