Pinus peuce 

Scope: Global & Europe
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus peuce Griseb.
Common Name(s):
English Balkan Pine, Macedonian Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-08-22
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Allen, D.J. & Thomas, P.
Contributor(s): Alexandrov, A.
Global and European regional assessment: Near Threatened (NT)
EU 28 regional assessment: Vulnerable (VU)

Pinus peuce has a scattered distribution in the Balkans, with many subpopulations small and some very isolated, and it is considered to be severely fragmented. Its extent of occurrence (EOO) is large, however its area of occupancy (AOO; here estimated at 1,280 km2 on the basis of herbarium collections that cover c.75% of known localities) is below the threshold for Vulnerable. It is uncertain if the decline due to past exploitation and afforestation with Picea abies is still ongoing (if so apparently at a slower rate given that most localities known from the past are still occupied (Vidacović 1991), nor if declines in habitat quality resulting from fire in observed in Bulgaria occurs elsewhere in the species range, so the species does not quite meet the criteria for listing as threatened (B2ab(iii,v)). Hence its listing as Near Threatened (NT B2a) globally.

Within the EU28 member state region, the species is only found in northern Greece and western Bulgaria. The EOO within the EU 28 is more restricted (c.18,000 km2) and the AOO is estimated to be very much less than 500 km2, within an ongoing decline in the quality of habitat in Bulgaria as a result of fire. The are fewer than ten locations and as a result the species is considered Vulnerable (VU B1ab(iii)B2ab(iii)) for the European Union member states.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is a native endemic of southeastern Europe: Albania, western Bulgaria, Macedonia, Montenegro, northern Greece and Serbia (Farjon 2010a,b; Alexandrov and Andonovski 2011, Farjon and Filer 2013). It has been widely introduced to northern Europe and to North America (GBIF 2016).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Bulgaria; Greece (Greece (mainland)); Montenegro; Serbia (Serbia)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1280Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:118000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):2500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


The species is known from 17-20 locations (subpopulations), some of which are isolated and small, however the population trend is not known. The species is probably a Tertiary relict that has survived severe contractions in its range due to Alpine glaciations during the Pleistocene. Its current range consists of two disjunct distributions, one in the west centred in Albania and one in the east in western Bulgaria. The species is considered to be severely fragmented. The two populations have sometimes been viewed as two distinct varieties, with "Pinus peuce var. vermiculata Christ" (cited in Vidacović 1991:532 but original publication not traced) in Bulgaria, although this is not generally accepted as the stated differences: length of leaves and cones, are continuous and partly overlapping.

Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pinus peuce is a montane pine, growing between 600 m and 2,400 m above sea level (Alexandrov and Andonovski 2011) and usually on silicate rock types. In Albania and Serbia it is also found on serpentine. It can grow on a variety of soil types, usually poor in nutrients and acidic to basic. In the Greek region of Macedonia it forms pure stands on gentle mountain slopes, interspersed with grassy glades and meadows. In most areas where it occurs, it is mixed with Picea abies and/or Abies alba / A. borisii-regis, with which it can compete due to relatively high shade tolerance.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):40

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This Pine is a valuable timber tree in the Balkans (Alexandrov and Andonovski 2011). It is now commonly planted for forestry in the region and natural stands are less intensively exploited than in the past. The wood is used only locally for carpentry and furniture and can be rather knotty, but when plantation-grown trees come of age to be harvested, this tendency will be reduced. Inter-specific hybrids with other species in subsection Strobus have been tested in forestry nurseries for growth performance. Balkan Pine, in contrast with several other species, is resistant to the pathogenic fungus Cronartium ribicola (Basidiomycota) and hybrids may also become resistant to the disease. In horticulture it has long been used, being first introduced north of the Alps in Germany in 1863. It is mostly grown as a 'species tree' for large gardens and parks; only a limited number of cultivars, mostly producing dwarfed forms, is known.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Extensive exploitation in the past has undoubtedly had an impact on its abundance but no details of a possible reduction are known for much of its range, although Roussakova (2015) notes that declines from fire and exploitation continues in Bulgaria. It is uncertain if afforestation with Picea abies is still an ongoing threat and what the scope of the impacts are.

Alexandrov and Andonovski (2011) consider insect attack and fungal disease to be minor threats with the tree more resistant than some other pines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in several protected areas in the Balkan mountains. The species has been assessed as Endangered in Bulgaria, where it is protected under the Biodiversity Act, and occurs within the Rila, Pirin and Central Balkan national parks (Roussakova 2015). Research into the current distribution and population trend is required, as is research into the scope and scale of threats.

Citation: Farjon, A. 2017. Pinus peuce. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T34193A95751594. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided