Shorea roxburghii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Dipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Shorea roxburghii G.Don
Common Name(s):
English White Meranti

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-03-13
Assessor(s): Pooma, R., Newman, M. & Barstow, M.
Reviewer(s): Chua, L.S.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rivers, M.C.
Shorea roxburghii is a large tree species. It is native to the mixed dipterocarp forests of Cambodia, India, Lao PDR, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Viet Nam. The species is assessed as Vulnerable. There has been at least a 30% population reduction in the last three generations, leading to overall population decline and potential future species decline. This is a consequence of habitat loss as forests are cleared for agricultural expansion and due to logging for timber, these remain a threat to the species. The species can be found within protected areas but is found in only five ex situ collections. It recommended that further ex situ collections of the species be made and harvest of the species be monitored. Population and habitat decline also require monitoring.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This is a widespread species native to south and southeast Asia. It is recorded from India, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Viet Nam, Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia. The species is also cultivated in Singapore (Chua et al. 2010). It is recorded from sea level up to 1,500 m and it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of over 3 million km2.
Countries occurrence:
Cambodia; India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A very common and widespread species. It is considered an important component of dry, semi-evergreen forests in the Eastern Ghats (Raju et al. 2011). Within Malaysia, although the species has a small area of occurrence (AOO) it exhibits gregarious growth and a large population (Chua et al. 2010). Overall, population is in decline and there has been at least a 30% population reduction in the last 300 years due to exploitation of the species and habitat loss.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree can grow between 27 m (Singh et al. 2014) and 40 m (Raju et al. 2011) in height. The species is predominantly found within dry, evergreen or semi-evergreen dipterocarp forest. It can also occur within lowland dipterocarp forests, Schima-bamboo forest and on limestone (Chua et al. 2010). This species is highly tolerant of dry conditions, heavy drought and small fires (Nakamura 2006). The species is considered self-incompatible (Raju et al. 2011). Within India flowering occurs between December and April and fruiting follows between March and May (Singh et al. 2014). Unlike other dipterocarp species, Shorea roxburghii fruits, flowers, sheds and gains leaves annually (Raju et al. 2011). It is an insect pollinated tree, mostly by bees and less frequently by wasps and butterflies. It is a food source for these insects. The species exhibits low seed germination; one experimental plot within India showed only 8% germination. This is often due to fruit and seed infestation or predation by bruchid and scarabaeid beetles (Raju et al. 2011). The species is able to form ectomycorrhizal relationships (Lee 1998). Habitat is declining in area, extent and quality.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):100

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The tree is harvested for its timber. This is used for construction, bridge building, furniture, agricultural implements and other tools (Singh et al. 2014). The species also produces a resin which is used as a stimulant for fumigation (Shiva et al. 1998). It is also a host for the insects Lacifer lacca or Lac, which also produce a resin for harvest (Shiva et al. 1998). It can be found within plantations (Wienland 1998).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by habitat loss as forests are cleared for agricultural expansion. Logging of the species is also a threat in parts of its range. Logging is now illegal in Thailand.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Five ex situ collections of this species are reported (BCGI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made. It has been recorded from protected areas across its range. Within Malaysia the species is assessed as Near Threatened (Chua et al. 2010). The species has been identified as a species of conservation priority in the South East Asian region (Luoma-aho et al. 2003).  It is recommended that the remaining species habitat be monitored for further decline and protected in areas of extreme loss. The harvest of the species should also be monitored and managed to ensure use of the species is sustainable. Population decline should continue to be monitored and in situ efforts made to reduce further losses.

Citation: Pooma, R., Newman, M. & Barstow, M. 2017. Shorea roxburghii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T33028A2831736. . Downloaded on 12 December 2017.
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