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Hopea canarensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Dipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Hopea canarensis Hole

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-08-22
Assessor(s): Barstow, M.
Reviewer(s): Rehel, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Beech, E.
Justification:
Hopea canarensis is a large tree species endemic to the Western Ghats, India. The species is reported from just four locations in the state of Karnataka giving it an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of only 427 km2. The species' habitat and population is considered to be in decline due to the loss of the type specimen location, local urbanisation at two locations (Karkala and Sringeri) and mining that might encroach on the Kudremukh forest reserve where the species resides. Therefore the species is threatened by a number of factors despite its occurrence within a protected area. The species is under-represented in the herbarium catalogue so area of occupancy (AOO) cannot be estimated. There are no ex situ collections of this species. It is recommended these are made and that more information be gathered on the trees population and habitat decline. The species is globally assessed as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is considered endemic to the state of Karnataka, India (Ramesh and Pascal 1997). From this state species has been reported from Bhagavathy valley region, Andar forest reserve, Karkala and Sringeri Taluk meaning that some of these sites fall within the Kudermukh National Park (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). The estimated EOO between these four sites is 427 km2. There are not enough specimens available to measure AOO. The species range is considered to be in decline due to the loss of the type specimen and local mining projects. Kumar and Kaveriappa (1999) consider the species to have a 'very restricted distribution' and to be 'a narrow endemic of the Western Ghats'. The species is found above 750 m and up to 1,400 m asl (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
India (Karnataka)
Additional data:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:4-5
Lower elevation limit (metres):750
Upper elevation limit (metres):1440
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There is limited population information for this species. Due to the distribution of forests above 750 m asl, the species has a naturally patchy population structure (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). It is suspected that populations have been subject to historical population decline due to the loss of the type specimen locality. There are also concerns about the continuing decline in populations outside of the Kudremukh National Park due to the threat of forest conversion within the region. From satellite images (Bachman et al. 2011) the localities at Karkala and Sirengeri appear to be urbanised, as such the species and its habitat may be lost or in decline in these places. There is also mining adjacent to the Kudremukh National Park (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999) which may also cause population and habitat to decline.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Hopea canarensis is a large tree that grows up to 30 m in height (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). It grows on hills in forests within glens and mountain folds or Shola forests (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). The species can also grow along streams. It is found in association with Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. and Palaquium ellipticum Engl. Flowering occurs after February and fruit is set in the monsoon season from June to July. Although germination is high seeds are threatened by being washed away during monsoons while seedlings can be lost to fire which spread from surrounding grasslands (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). The species' habitat is threatened by local urbanisation, which is causing it to decline in area, extent and quality.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is used for timber (Mark et al. 2014) which can be utilised for construction (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). It also makes a good fire wood.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss. This is due to the expansion or urban areas within the species range; the local forest is deforested to make space for settlement and people. There is the further threat of habitat loss from mining which is occurring adjacent to Kudremukh Forest Reserve (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). The species is not reported to be threatened by its use as a timber however the species may be at risk from a reduced regeneration potential due to the loss of seeds to flooding and seedlings to fire (Kumar and Kaveriappa 1999). The impact of these threats requires further investigation.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is not reported from any ex situ collections (BGCI PlantSearch 2017), these should be produced. The species is known from Kudremukh National Park and the Andar Forest Reserve and was previously assessed as Data Deficient on the IUCN Red List of Threatened species in 1998. It is recommended that the extent of population and habitat decline for the species is measured, involving confirmation of the species at Karkal and Sringeri. Kumar and Kaveriappa (1999) suggest mass propagation of the tree and its inclusion within social forestry programmes.

Citation: Barstow, M. 2017. Hopea canarensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T33017A118910041. . Downloaded on 24 June 2018.
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