Map_thumbnail_large_font

Araucaria angustifolia

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES ARAUCARIACEAE

Scientific Name: Araucaria angustifolia
Species Authority: (Bertol.) Kuntze
Common Name/s:
English Parana Pine, Paraná-pine, Candelabra Tree
Spanish Pino Blanco, Pino de Missiones
Synonym/s:
Columbea angustifolia Bertol.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-08-16
Assessor/s: Thomas, P.
Reviewer/s: Mill, R. & Farjon, A.
Justification:
This species was formerly evaluated as Vulnerable A1d, B1+B2b under the 1994 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Farjon and Page 1999) but published data cited in Enright and Hill (1995) indicate that a reduction of 97% has taken place due to logging since the beginning of the 20th century. It is estimated that in about 1900 AD this species had an extent of occurrence of ca. 20 million ha; analysing this area using LANDSAT-II imagery, Gantzel (1982) showed that only 565,419 ha remained by 1982. Logging at that time was still continuing at an estimated rate of 80,000 ha per year. This amounts to a forest reduction of over 97% within three tree generations. Plantation forestry with Pinus and Eucalyptus as well as conversion of forest for other uses have the habitat loss irreversible. Consequently an assessment of Critically Endangered under the A2 criterion is warranted.
History:
2006 Critically Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1998 Vulnerable (Oldfield et al. 1998)
1998 Vulnerable
1997 Vulnerable (Walter and Gillett 1998)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: It occurs in southeastern Brazil (primarily in the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande Do Sul, and locally in São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio De Janeiro) and adjacent areas of Argentina (Misiones) and Paraguay. Found at an altitude of 500-1,800 m in Brazil and 500-2,300 m in the adjoining countries.
Countries:
Native:
Argentina (Misiones); Brazil (Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo); Paraguay
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The original extent of Araucaria forest, estimated at 200,000 km², is believed to have declined by more than 97% in the last century. In Rio Grande do Sul, for instance, the forest area, over half of which was made up of Araucaria, has plummeted from 40% land cover to 3% today. Araucaria forest in Sâo Paulo covers 4.3% of its original area. The Paraguay population is small and confined to Alto Paraná. Seeding trees are scarce. Small relict populations, covering less than 1,000 ha, in northeast Misiones, Argentina, are all that remain of the forest that in 1960 covered 210,000 ha. The species is included on the official list compiled by IBAMA of threatened Brazilian plants.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Grows in subtropical forest on acidic soils. Araucaria is usually dioecious, rarely monoecious and like other conifers is wind pollinated. Pollen maturation and pollination in Brazil occur from August through October. The seed cones begin to mature two years after pollination, and the complete cycle from primitive carpel to seed takes about four years. Young trees begin to set seed between 12 and 15 years of age. Seeds are dispersed between May and August.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Paraná Pine is the most important timber species in Brazil. In addition to the massive exploitation for timber, 3,400 tonnes per annum of fruit and seeds are collected for human consumption. Fragmentation, forest clearance for planting other agricultural crops (wheat, soya and corn) as well as faster growing timber species such as pine and eucalypt are also continuing threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Since 2001 there has been an official Brazilian ban on log exports of this species. The Brazilian Government is also promoting several initiatives to protect Araucaria genetic resources. Only a small fraction of the former range of this species is protected in reserves and national parks.
Citation: Thomas, P. 2013. Araucaria angustifolia. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided