Delonix regia 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fabales Fabaceae

Scientific Name: Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf.
Common Name(s):
English Flame Tree, Flamboyant, Gold Mohar
French Flamboyan
Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. ssp. flavida Stehle
Delonix regia (Hook.) Raf. ssp. genuina Stehle
Poinciana regia Hook.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2014
Date Assessed: 2011-01-13
Assessor(s): Rivers, M.
Reviewer(s): Hilton-Taylor, C.
Delonix regia is listed as Least Concern as it has a wide distribution, sometimes being locally common. There have been collections made recently, and it is known from several protected areas. D. regia does not qualify for a threatened category based on geographic range (the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are both large), nor is it likely to be declining fast enough to qualify for a threatened rating. There is no precise information to assess the population size and trends of the species. However, its native habitat the dry forest, is fragmented and degraded, and continues to decrease in quality and extent; these trends should be monitored to determine whether the population of this species is declining.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:D. regia is endemic to Madagascar. In the wild, it is found in the west (Tsingy de Bemaraha) and the north (including Orangea, Cap d’Ambre peninsulas and around Baie de Diego, the Ankarana and Analamerana Massifs) and possibly from Nosy Be. It is also cultivated in most areas of Madagascar and across much of the tropics as a street tree. Based on the distribution of herbarium specimens, the extent of occurrence (EOO) of the wild populations is 68,334 km² and the area of occupancy (AOO) is 58,156 km². It occurs from sea level up to 400 m and occasionally as high as 750 m.
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Belize; Bermuda; Bhutan; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Chad; China; Colombia; Comoros; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Djibouti; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Ghana; Guatemala; Guinea; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Jamaica; Japan; Kenya; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Libya; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Maldives; Mali; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Niue; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Réunion; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Tonga; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:58156
Number of Locations:3
Upper elevation limit (metres):400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:GIS analysis estimates that D. regia has three subpopulations (Rivers et al. 2010). Genetically (only samples from the northern distribution) D. regia contains levels of genetic diversity that are high compared to the average for Delonix s.l. (Rivers et al. 2011). The variation is not evenly distributed geographically. During a collection trip in 2007, D. regia was spotted in several locations that were previously unrecorded for the species. However, little regeneration was seen.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:D. regia is a deciduous tree up to 30 m tall. It is found within the dry forest especially on limestone (Du Puy et al. 1995, 2002). It has distinctive large, bright red flowers, and is thought to be pollinated by sunbirds (Du Puy et al. 2002).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: D. regia is used across the tropics for firewood, woodware, gum, pesticide and as a cultivated ornamental. The pods are possibly also edible by humans and livestock (CAB International 2000).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): D. regia is thought to be rare in its native habitat (Du Puy et al. 2002), although this seems to be an exaggeration (M. Rivers pers. obs.). The natural vegetation of Madagascar is under threat from habitat loss and fragmentation, as a result of conversion of land for slash-and-burn agriculture, grazing, charcoal production and collection of firewood (Moat and Smith 2007). The Madagascar dry forests are severely fragmented and often in small blocks. Expanding rural populations and selective logging is also adding to the pressure (WWF 2001). The dry forest is one of the vegetation types that are declining significantly in Madagascar with an estimated rate of loss of 0.4-0.7% per year (Harper et al. 2007, MEFT et al. 2009). Climate change modelling predicted that approximately 10% of the present climatically suitable range will be lost by 2100 (Rivers et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: D. regia is widely cultivated across Madagascar and in the rest of the tropics as an ornamental tree. It can be found in some protected areas (Analamerana, Ankarana, Lokobe, Montagne des Français, Tsingy de Bemaraha), although the effectiveness of this official protection is not always adequate. Seed collections have been made and are held by the Millennium Seed Bank (MSB, Wakehurst Place, UK) as well as in-country by Silo National des Graines Forestières (SNGF). Botanic garden collections exist according to BGCI (

Citation: Rivers, M. 2014. Delonix regia. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T32947A2828337. . Downloaded on 14 August 2018.
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