|Scientific Name:||Pinus krempfii|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2c; B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Thomas, P., Nguyen, T.H., Phan, K.L. & Nguyen, Q.H.|
|Reviewer(s):||Gardner, M. & Farjon, A.|
Pinus krempfii is a localized endemic with a restricted habitat at higher altitudes in the border areas of Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa and Ninh Thuan Provinces. Although its estimated extent of occurrence is within the threshold for Endangered and its area of occupancy is also likely to be less than 500 km2, there are more than five locations known and the subpopulations are not currently considered severely fragmented. It therefore does not qualify for listing as Endangered under criterion B.
There has been a decline in the extent of occurrence of more than 30% over the last three generations (150 years) as a result of deforestation and conversion of forest to other uses. It is known from less than 10 locations and there is some evidence of a continuing decline in the quality of habitat in some parts of its range due to the effects of habitat fragmentation, illegal logging and infrastructure development. On this basis it is assessed as Vulnerable under criteria A2c and B1ab(iii).
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Viet Nam occurring in the southern Truong Son Range, in areas such as the Hon Vong Phu, Chu Yang Sinh and Bi Doup Massifs in Dac Lac, Lam Dong, Khanh Hoa and Ninh Thuan Provinces. There are fewer than 10 distinct locations and the current extent of occurrence is estimated to be about 1,925 km2. Its historical extent of occurrence was somewhat greater (ca. 3,000 km2 based on herbarium records): stands documented by French botanists in the 1920s (e.g. Mere et l'Enfant, Poilane 5084, P) no longer exist. On this basis there has been a decline in the extent of occurrence of more than 30% within the last three generations.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||May be locally dominant along ridgelines, often as groups of emergent very large trees.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus krempfii occurs at altitudes between 1,200–2,000 m in closed canopy forests dominated by evergreen members of the Fagaceae and Lauraceae. It may be locally dominant, often occurring on the tops and upper slopes of flattened ridges in moist soils with well-developed humus layers. It is often associated with Fokienia hodginsii or Pinus dalatensis (Nguyen et al. 2004). P. krempfii is unusual amongst the pines as it is able to persist under an evergreen canopy and compete with angiosperms tress (Brodribb and Feild 2008). Tree ring analyses have indicated that it may reach ages in excess of 1,000 years (B. Buckley, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, unpubl. data., 2009). A generation length is estimated to be at least 50 years.|
|Use and Trade:||The timber from this species is thought to have similar qualities to that of Pinus kesiya but its rarity has meant that it has not been heavily exploited in the past. Its current legal protection forbids the commercial exploitation. However, there have been reports of illegal logging in Chu Yang Sin National Park in the northern parts of its range (Birdlife International 2010).|
|Major Threat(s):||The most serious long term threat to P. krempfii is habitat fragmentation resulting from infrastructure developments, an increasing incidence of fires throughout the region, the conversion of lower altitude forests to fire-prone P. kesiya forests and encroachment into protected areas for coffee production. The recent construction of a new national highway through the protected areas where this species occurs has disturbed some stands and the easier access to previously inaccessible areas is also likely to lead to a decrease in the quality of habitat as a result of increased illegal logging that usually targets associated species such as Fokienia hodginsii. Illegal logging aimed at P. krempfii in Chu Yang Sin has recently been reported. (Birdlife International 2010).|
|Conservation Actions:||The majority of stands are within protected areas such as BiDoup Nui-Ba National Park. In Viet Nam exploitation of this species is prohibited under appendix IIa of Decree No. 3212006lnd-Cp of March 30, 2006, on Management of Endangered, Precious and Rare Forest Plants and Animals.|
|Citation:||Thomas, P., Nguyen, T.H., Phan, K.L. & Nguyen, Q.H. 2013. Pinus krempfii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 September 2015.|
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