Hopea odorata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Dipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Hopea odorata Roxb.
Hopea decandra Buch.-Ham. ex Wight
Hopea odorata Pierre ssp. eglandulosa
Hopea odorata Pierre ssp. flavescens
Hopea vasta Wall. ex. DC.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-03-03
Assessor(s): Ly, V., Newman, M., Khou, E., Barstow, M., Hoang, V.S., Nanthavong, K. & Pooma, R.
Reviewer(s): Chua, L.S.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rivers, M.C.
This large tree species is found in the lowland, evergreen rainforest of India, Bangladesh and Indochina. The species is globally assessed as Vulnerable. There has been a 30–50% population reduction in the last three generations (+300 years) and decline will continue into the future at an unknown rate. Decline is due to clearance of forest habitat for expanding agriculture and local exploitation of the species for its timber. These threats are ongoing. The species is found in protected areas and some ex situ collections. It is recommended that remaining habitat be protected and population size further assessed. Population decline and species harvest should also be monitored.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native to southern Asia and Indochina. It is found within Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia and in India on the Andaman Islands and West Bengal. The species is cultivated in Singapore (Chong et al. 2009). The species is found at low elevations up to 600 m asl and it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 2,793,001 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; Cambodia; India (Andaman Is., West Bengal); Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Myanmar; Thailand; Viet Nam
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This is a very common species. It is also widely planted. In Peninsular Malaysia it is estimated that there are 66,000 adult stems in Permanent Reserved Forests. Also within Malaysia the species area of occupancy (AOO) is below 2,000 km2 and there are extreme fluctuations in AOO (Chua et al. 2010). Overall, the population is currently in decline. It has undergone a 30–50% population reduction in the last three generations (+300 years) due to clearance of forest habitat for expanding agriculture and local exploitation of the species for its timber. Population decline is likely to continue into the future but at a unknown rate.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree species can grow to between 30–45 m in height. It grows in lowland evergreen forest, dry forest, on hillsides, by streams in deciduous forest, open forest near the beach and peat swamp forest (Ecocrop 1993-2007). It is most often found in mixed dipterocarp forest (Singh et al. 2014) but can also be found within pure stands. The species is often found on deep soils (CTSP 2004). Best growth is observed when rainfall is higher than 1,200 mm per year and where mean annual temperature is between 25–27°C (Jøker 2000). The tree is shade tolerant in its youth but requires abundant light in later years. It susceptible to fires (Ecocrop 1993-2007). Trees flower from 8–10 years of age, with flowering occurring every two years between February and March. Seed is wind-dispersed and fruits ripen from April to May (Jøker 2000). It is an apomictic species. The species habitat is declining in extent, quality and area.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):100

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is used for its timber. This light hardwood is used for the construction of boats and canoes and also in general construction, for planks and furniture (Singh et al. 2014, Jøker 2000). The species is rich in tannins which are used to tan leather (Singh et al. 2014). Also tannins from the bark are used for a variety of medicinal purposes such as treating diarrhoea and inflammation (Slik 2009). Resin can be collected from the tree and used to produce Danmar which is further used in the preparation of varnishes (Singh et al. 2014). The resin has further medicinal properties. The tree is widely grown as an ornamental in urban areas or shade tree in agricultural sites. Within Malaysia the species is grown for reforestation work and is found in plantations (Azaruddin 2014). Within Cambodia it can be found in the grounds of pagoda (CTSP 2004).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss as a result of deforestation for the expansion of agriculture. The species is also at risk from selective logging for timber.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is reported from 12 ex situ collections (BGCI 2017). It should be ensured that these collections are representative of the species entire population and if not more collections should be made. It occurs in many protected areas across its range. With in Malaysia the species is assessed as Vulnerable B2b(iii)+c(ii) (Chua et al. 2010). It is recommended that remaining species habitat is protected and remaining stands of the species identified. Population size should be further investigated and population decline monitored. Harvest of the species should also be monitored and restricted if necessary.

Citation: Ly, V., Newman, M., Khou, E., Barstow, M., Hoang, V.S., Nanthavong, K. & Pooma, R. 2017. Hopea odorata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T32305A2813234. . Downloaded on 21 February 2018.
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