Nothofagus glauca 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Fagales Nothofagaceae

Scientific Name: Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser
Common Name(s):
Spanish Hualo, Roble Blanco, Roble Colorado, Roble Maulino
Fagus glauca Phil.
Lophozonia glauca (Phil.) Heenan & Smissen

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-03-02
Assessor(s): Barstow, M., Rivers, M.C. & Baldwin, H.
Reviewer(s): Echeverría, C.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Rivers, M.C.
Nothofagus glauca is a large tree species. It is endemic to south-central Chile and is dominant over much of its native range. Due to the use of the species as timber and deforestation of the species native habitat, population is estimated to have declined by at least 30% over the last three generations. Decline has recently slowed as fewer non-native species plantations are being established within the N. galuca range so deforestation has become a reduced threat. The population is also fragmented and threatened by increased risk of anthropogenic forest fires. The species is globally assessed as Vulnerable. The species is found in ex situ collections and protected areas.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This tree species is endemic to Central Chile where it has a discontinuous distribution in both the Coastal and Andean Cordilleras from Province Cachapoal, 33º52’S to Province Biobío, 37º27’S. In the Coastal Cordillera it has an altitudinal range of between 100 and 800 m asl and in the Andes it occurs between 400 and 1,100 m asl. The species has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of 25,842 km2.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):100
Upper elevation limit (metres):1100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is considered the dominant tree across its native range however over the last three generation population has declined by at least 30% due to the use of the species as a timber and due to deforestation. Deforestation is a consequence of the establishment of plantations of non-native species, however, fewer of these plantations are now being established. Hence, population decline has begun to slow over the the last 10 years but population is decreasing (C. Echeverría pers. comm. 2017). Also, in some parts of its range population is fragmented. For example in the Maulino reserve 2–5 ha plots are separated by over 50 m and the forests itself is severely fragmented (Burgos et al. 2008). Fajardo and Alaback (2005) found that between two plots (0.12–0.14 ha) seedling density varied from 17.9 to 48.9%.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree species can grow to over 25 m in height (Fajardo and Alaback 2005). This species occurs within the Mediterranean zone of Chile, which has a mild winter, dry summer and a temperature range from 3.8°C to 28.4°C (Fajardo and Alaback 2005). The species can be found at variable gradients in both the Andes and Coastal Cordillera; on steep sunny slopes to very steep, rocky generally north, west and east slopes where it is well adapted to prolonged periods of drought. In the lower slopes of the Andes or in the Coastal Cordillera it forms an ecotone with sclerophyllous vegetation. In wetter valleys it is associated with Nothofagus obliqua, the hybrid N. leonii and on the tops of hills it is associated with Quillaja saponaria and Lithrea caustica. In the Andes it frequently grows with N. obliqua at high altitudes and occasionally with N. dombeyi and N. nervosa in valleys, while on the dryer hills it grows in purer stands and occasionally with Quillaja saponaria, Gaultheria phillyreifolia, Sophora cassiodes (syn. S. macrocarpa) and Azara petiolaris. This species promotes the development of complex ecosystems and understory vegetation (Fajardo and Alaback 2005). The species is shade intolerant so forms forests with an open patchy canopy (Burgos et al. 2008). It also shows a preference to volcanic soils. Regeneration is generally promoted by disturbance hence the species is able to form secondary forests (Fajardo and Alaback 2005). The species is wind pollinated and seed germination occurs from July to September (Burgos et al. 2008). Overall, species habitat is in decline in quality, extent and area due to the establishment of plantations of non-native species, though this is currently occurring at a slower rate than a decade ago.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):50-600

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is a hardwood valued for its timber. The species can also be used as fuel and firewood.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by deforestation and habitat loss. The establishment of plantations of Pinus radiata (Fajardo and Alaback 2005) and Eucalyptus globulus (Litton and Santelices 2003) caused a reduction in the range of the species and has left N. glauca population fragmented, despite the fact that the threat from this forest use has declined in the last 10 years. The greater occurrence of dry Pinus plantations (Litton and Santelices 2003) has led to the increased threat from fire. The species is also at risk from stand degradation (Fajardo and Alaback 2005). There is also growing concern of pre-dispersal seed predation from microlepidoptera larva (Perzelia spp.) which can cause a loss of 57% of seed and post dispersal predation from small mammals (Burgos et al. 2008). These threats reduce the regeneration capacity of the species. Although not reported, logging of this species for use within the timber trade is likely to be a threat to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is reported from 21 ex situ collections (BGCI Plant Search 2017). In the Andes this species is protected in within Reserva Nacional Radal Siete Tazas and in Reserva Nacional Altos de Lircay. In Coastal Cordillera, it is protected within Reserva Nacional Los Ruiles y Reserva Nacional Los Queules. It was previously listed as Vulnerable by Beloit (1989), Walter and Gillet (1998) and Oldfield et al. (1998) and within Chile the species has recently been downgraded from Vulnerable to not threatened (C. Echeverría pers. comm. 2017). The remaining species habitat requires protection and efforts should be made to reduce the fragmentation of the population.

Citation: Barstow, M., Rivers, M.C. & Baldwin, H. 2017. Nothofagus glauca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T32034A2809142. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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