|Scientific Name:||Podocarpus parlatorei|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
To date Podocarpus parlatorei has been listed as Data Deficient but there has been plenty of recent research which now enables a more accurate assessment. It has a ca. 1,000 x 100 km (usually less this) distribution along the Andes of northwestern Argentina and Bolivia but within this zone it is naturally fragmented. The extent of occurrence clearly falls outside of the threshold for any of the threatened categories and because there are no available figures for the historic loss through logging it is not possible to estimate the reduction in population size under criterion A. However, it is reasonable to suspect that there has been a past decline approaching 30% (so almost meets the requirements for listing as threatened under criterion A2cd). There is little evidence for present-day loss as logging is limited to local use; many of the locations are on very steep slopes often in remote forests where weather conditions are such, that it is difficult for commercial forestry activities (CITES 2009). Even though there is some evidence that recovery from grassland degradation (as a result of fire) is a problem, generally speaking it is an effective pioneer species, capable of abundant regeneration after large scale disturbances, both natural or man-made and therefore the population is considered to be more-or-less stable. However, this very important habitat could become more fragmented under current warming trends in combination with human-induced disturbances such as logging, clearance for agriculture and cattle grazing (Quiroga et al. 2012). With all the available evidence available it is reasonable to assess Podocarpus parlatorei as being Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||This species has a distribution on the eastern-most flanks of the Andes of northwestern Argentina and Bolivia
Argentina (Provs. of: Catamarca, Corrientes, Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán)
Bolivia Dept. Chuquisaca (Provs. of: Belisario Boeto, Hernando Siles, Sud Cinti, Tomina), Dept. Cochabamba (Prov. Mizque), Dep. Potosí. (Prov. Charcas); Dept. Santa Cruz (Provs. of: Manuel Maria Caballero, Vallegrande), Dept. Tarija (Provs. of: Aniceto Arce, José María Avilés, Mendez, O'Connor).
The extent of occurrence is well in excess of the thresholds for the threatened categories. The current area of occupancy is uncertain.
Native:Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has a distribution that is divided by wide river valleys, latitudinally and longitudinally and as a result it is naturally fragmented by lowland Chiquitano subandino forest and interandino xeric valleys. In northern Argentina, the Boliviano–Tucumano formation is also fragmented into three ecological and latitudinal sectors, recognized as north, central, and south (Brown and Ramadori 1989). It has a north-south distribution of ca. 1,000 km and at its widest it is ca. 100 km, but usually this is less. The pattern of distribution is stable with regard to the number of subpopulations and the range and at local level it is observed that many of the subpopulations are starting to expand into grazing areas (CITES 2008).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Podocarpus parlatorei forms a tree between 15 to 30 m tall. It is a cold-tolerant pioneer species occurring within Montane Yungas Forests at elevations varying from 1,200 to 3,000 m above sea level (Quiroga et al. 2012). In Bolivia, it grows on the Peruano–Boliviano Yungas and continues to the south in Argentina, on the Boliviano–Tucumano formation (Navarro and Ferreira 2004). It is capable of regenerating following large-scale disturbances (Arturi et al. 1998|), for example, it is the most abundant species in post-grazing secondary forests (Carilla and Grau 2010). At its southern limit in Argentina it often occurs in pure forests, whereas in the north of its range it grows underneath the canopy of Alnus acuminata, Cedrela lilloi, and Juglans australis (Morales et al. 1995). It is wind pollinated and the fruits are dispersed by birds such as Guans (Penelope) and Band-tailed Pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata), or mammals such as Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga). Ecological studies on forest dynamics has shown that P. parlatorei rarely regenerates within the closed canopy of mature forests but instead abundant regeneration occurs in open areas after large-scale disturbances (Quiroga et al. 2012). Recruitment is intense at forest edges but absent in grassland areas due to a lack of major dispersal agents. As a pioneer and long-lived tree, it is an important forest component in facilitating the establishment of many other shade-tolerant species (Quiroga et al. 2012).|
|Use and Trade:||It is used by local rural communities as a source of firewood, to make wooden posts, utensils or housing, as living fencing around houses and pastures. It was first CITES-listed under Appendix I in 1975 and although there was a proposal by Argentina to down-list this species to Appendix II in 2008 (CITES 2008) this was rejected (CITES 2009).|
Historically this species was subject to heavy logging for its timber, which led to its inclusion in CITES Appendix I in 1975. Today it is mainly threatened by loss of habitat due to human-set fires associated with the management of grassland areas for livestock ranching, although it is also an important commercial timber. In some cases even despite a decrease in grazing intensity and increasing rainfall, forests are not actively recovering from degraded grasslands and this is likely due to recurrent fires which make the ecosystem resistant to change through its direct effects on seedlings mortality and/or its indirect effects on soil and the microclimate (Carilla and Grau 2010). However, generally speaking this species is an effective pioneer species, and abundant regeneration occurs following large-scale disturbances of anthropogenic and natural origin (Arturi et al. 1998).
|Conservation Actions:||The species was listed on Appendix I of CITES in 1975 and at the 18th meeting of the Plants Committee (PC18) of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), it was maintained on this Appendix (CITES 2009). Large parts of the population are located within protected areas of Argentina and Bolivia. However, the most genetically variable subpopulations in the southern sector fall outside protected areas (Quiroga and Premoli 2007).|
|Citation:||Quiroga, P. & Gardner, M. 2013. Podocarpus parlatorei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 January 2015.|
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