|Scientific Name:||Rhizophora apiculata|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is widespread and common within its range. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 20% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found in south Asia including Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, southern Viet Nam, and China (Hainan Island). It is also found in the Northern Maldives. In Australasia, its range includes Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.|
Native:Australia; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Guam; India; Indonesia; Kiribati; Malaysia; Maldives; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Vanuatu; Viet Nam
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is very common within its range. It can be found in densities of more than 500 trees/ha in South Sumatra with a mean diameter of 35 cm (Sukardjo 1987). In the Philippines, this species can be found in densities of more than 1000 trees/ha with a mean diameter of 6-10cm. In India, this species was found to be present in 40% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008). There are two different forms of this species that are differentiated by the presence of spots under the leaves in the northern populations only (Duke and Bunt 1978).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the mid-intertidal region. This species tolerates a maximum salinity of 65 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth of 8-15 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is a hardy species, and fast-growing. This species can grow to 30 m. This species can be coppiced only in the eastern extremities of its range in Kosrae in The Federated States of Micronesia. In addition, sediment accretion increases the mortaility rate of seedlings. This species will not be an efficient colonizer of coastal areas exposed to sudden discharges of sediements such as those of highly eroding watersheds (Terrados et al. 1997).|
|Use and Trade:||This is a valuable fuelwood species. It is commonly planted in for use in commercial logging activities. This is the preferred species for mangrove silviculture, for example in Matang, Malaysia and Sumatra, Indonesia this species commercially planted for charcoal production.|
In South Andaman, 30-80% of Rhizophora spp. Died due to continuous inundation after the tsunami in December 2004 (Roy and Krishnan 2005). Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 20% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. This species is sometimes used for mangrove restoration.|
|Citation:||Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T. 2010. Rhizophora apiculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 July 2014.|
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