Eusideroxylon zwageri


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Eusideroxylon zwageri
Species Authority: Teysm. & Binnend.
Common Name(s):
English Billian, Borneo Ironwood
French Bois De Fer

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A1cd+2cd ver 2.3
Year Published: 1998
Date Assessed: 1998-01-01
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996)
1997 Vulnerable (Walter and Gillett 1998)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Belian or ironwood is one of the most renowned timbers of Borneo, the decline of which was first noted in 1955. Population reduction has been noted in the following regions: Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sabah, Sarawak and the Philippines.
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak); Philippines
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Generally a species of lowland primary forest.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overexploitation and shifting agriculture. Sabah and Kalimantan continue to export the timber. Regeneration in logged-over forests is limited.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Indonesia has banned the export of belian and Sarawak has placed restrictions on export. So far the species is only planted on a small scale because the supply of seeds and seedlings is inadequate.

Citation: Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996) 1998. Eusideroxylon zwageri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 01 April 2015.
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