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Hopea sangal 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Theales Dipterocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Hopea sangal Korth.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2017-03-06
Assessor(s): Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M.
Reviewer(s): Chua, L.S.L.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Hilton-Taylor, C., Rivers, M.C.
Justification:
Hopea sanagal is a large tree species found in the mixed, lowland dipterocarp forests of south east Asia. It is native to Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei and Singapore. The species is globally assessed as Vulnerable. There has been an estimated population reduction of between 30-50% in the past three generations. Decline is likely to continue into the future but at an unknown rate due to the continuing threats to the species of habitat loss and selective logging. The species is found within protected areas but is poorly represented in ex situ collections; this requires attention. It is also recommended that species harvest be monitored and population information gathered. The species habitat should also be protected.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is native to south east Asia. It is found in Peninsular Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam. The species is found on Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah and Sarawak. Within Indonesia the species is found on the islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and also on Kalimantan. The species is found up to 500 m asl and it has an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) exceeding 2 million km2.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia (Bali, Jawa, Kalimantan, Sumatera); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Singapore; Thailand
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is common and widespread across its range however population is in decline. There has been an estimated population reduction of between 30-50% in the past three generations (300 years) due to the impacts of exploitation for its timber and loss of habitat due to expanding agriculture. These threats are still ongoing so decline will continue into the future but at an unknown rate. In Peninsular Malaysia, there are an estimated 30,000 adult stems in Permanent Reserved Forests (Chua et al. 2010).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This large tree species can grow up to 40 m tall (Ashton 2004). It is found in lowland evergreen, mixed dipterocarp forest, often near rivers (Chua et al. 2010). The species can grow on a variety of soils including clays and shales, which are intermediate or basic in character. It has a generation length of 100 years. There are reports that within Kalimantan this tree forms ectomycorrhizal associations (Lee 1998). The species' habitat is threatened and in decline in area, extent and quality.
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):100

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The species is used for its timber. It is a commercially valuable hardwood species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The species is threatened by habitat loss. Forests are being cleared due to agricultural expansion, especially for agro-industry and oil palm plantations. The species is also at risk from selective logging for its commercial timber value.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are three reported ex situ collections of this species (BGCI 2017). Further ex situ collections of this species should be made which are representative of the species entire range. The species is found within protected areas across its range. Within Malaysia the species is considered Near Threatened (Chua et al. 2010) but within Singapore the species is assessed as critically endangered (Chong et al. 2009). It is recommended that remaining species habitat come under protection and the harvest of the species be monitored and restricted. There should be investigation into the commercial uptake of the species from wild populations and the potential of generating plantations of this tree. Further information on population size and decline is also desirable.

Citation: Pooma, R., Barstow, M. & Newman, M. 2017. Hopea sangal. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T31314A2804189. . Downloaded on 16 December 2017.
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