Xylosma grossecrenatum 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Violales Flacourtiaceae

Scientific Name: Xylosma grossecrenatum
Species Authority: (Sleumer) Lescot

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-05-15
Assessor(s): Hequet, V.
Reviewer(s): Pollock, C.M. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Xylosma grossecrenatum has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 95 km2 and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 20 km2. The species is endemic to New Caledonian dry forests where it is known from three locations. Its habitat is among the most threatened in New Caledonia; dry forests have been reduced dramatically, both in size and quality. They have been severely cleared for agricultural purposes over the last century and what remains today are highly fragmented patches that suffer intense predation by the introduced Rusa Deer (Rusa timorensis) and uncontrolled fires. The reduction of the habitat has been estimated at 95% over the last 150 years (Bouchet 1995) and this degradation continues today.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Critically Endangered (CR)
1998 Endangered (E)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to New Caledonia. It is known from two locations: one in Pouembout and one in Poya. Its total extent of occurrence is 95 km2, and its estimated area of occupancy within this range is 20 km2.
Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 20
Number of Locations: 3
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Population size is unknown but where found, this species always occurs as rare and scattered individuals. Less than 20 individuals are known.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is endemic to New Caledonian dry forests. Tropical dry forests are probably among the world’s most endangered of all lowland tropical forests. Because of their propensity to become pastures and their susceptibility to fire, dry forests have reduced dramatically, in size as well as in quality. In New Caledonia, they’ve been intensively cut for agricultural purposes for a century; what remains today are highly fragmented patches that have been estimated at 2% of the original area.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threat is lowland clearing for cattle grazing and agriculture, which began in the 1850s and is ongoing. Another threat comes from the Rusa Deer (Rusa timorensis), which was introduced in the 1880s and adapted extremely well to the Caledonian habitats. Its population may have reached 105,000–110,000 individuals in the wild. This deer consumes a wide variety of plant species and also causes severe damage to trees by rubbing antlers against tree stems. The third major threat is uncontrolled fires that sweep across lowlands of New Caledonia each year during the dry season and have slowly transformed remnant patches of dry forest into shrubland dominated by Acacia spirorbis and Leucaena leucocephala, or Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) savannas.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Present in two protected areas.

Citation: Hequet, V. 2010. Xylosma grossecrenatum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T31077A9604147. . Downloaded on 27 May 2016.
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