Charpentiera densiflora 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Caryophyllales Amaranthaceae

Scientific Name: Charpentiera densiflora Sohmer
Common Name(s):
English Dense-flowered Charpentiera, Papala
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:
Identification information: Small to medium size tree in the Amaranthaceae family.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-06-17
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M.
Reviewer(s): Walsh, S.
Contributor(s): Nyberg, B. & Wood, K.
Endemic to the island of Kauai, C. densiflora is known from six subpopulations with no subpopulation containing more than 50 mature individuals. The total population of C. densiflora is less than 150 mature individuals. The remaining plants are threatened by feral goats and pigs, and by the spread of alien plants.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Charpentiera densiflora is endemic to the Hawaiian islands occuring on island of Kauaʻi between 213 and 610 m elevation. It is narrowly endemic to the district of Na Pali coast region, on the northwestern side of the island, in a series of valleys and gulches over a 6 km stretch.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:8Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:14
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):213
Upper elevation limit (metres):610
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The taxon is rare, with a total known population of 135 individuals among six subpopulations, with the largest subpopulation containing 50 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:135Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:6Continuing decline in subpopulations:Yes
All individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a tree found in moist to mesic forests, especially in gulch bottoms dominated by Diospyros sandwicensis. Other associated native plant species may include Pouteria sandwicensis, Antidesma platyphyllum, Psychotria mariniana, Polyscias kavaiensis, Rauvolfia sandwicensis, Pteralyxia sandwicensis, Metrosideros polymorpha, and Pittosporum napaliense.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Major threats include feral goats and pigs, landslides, fire, rats, and displacement by invasive, non-native plant species such as Lantana camara, Erigeron karvinskianum, Kalanchoe pinnata, Aleurites moluccanus, and Psidium guajava. The limited numbers also suggests the threat of  genetic erosion. Furthermore, Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index 0.778).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This taxon is listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the State of Hawai'i. Occurs in the Hono O Na Pali Natural Area Reserve.

Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M. 2016. Charpentiera densiflora. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T30772A83795719. . Downloaded on 22 November 2017.
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