Clermontia peleana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Asterales Campanulaceae

Scientific Name: Clermontia peleana Rock
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-05-02
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L., Weisenberger, L., Keir, M. & Yoshioka, J.M.
Reviewer(s): Chau, M.
Contributor(s): Chau, M., Gon, S.M., Kwon, J., Sporck-Koehler, M. & Sugii, N.
Clermontia peleana is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Hawaiʻi and Maui. It is now only known from Hawaiʻi Island and has an extent of occurrence of 6 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 6 km² and declining. Its distribution is severely limited, occurring in only three subpopulations. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 530 and 1,150 m elevation on the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Currently only known from Hawaiʻi Island.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:6Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:6
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:1
Lower elevation limit (metres):530
Upper elevation limit (metres):1150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The taxon is extremely rare, with a total known population of 12 individuals in three subpopulations on the island of Hawaiʻi.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:12Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
No. of subpopulations:3Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is an epiphytic shrub or small tree found in Hawaiian wet forest.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Since the species is epiphytic, it is threatened by wind and falling tree branches.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. None of the subpopulations occur in a protected conservation area, but it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.

Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L., Weisenberger, L., Keir, M. & Yoshioka, J.M. 2016. Clermontia peleana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T30767A83789783. . Downloaded on 26 September 2018.
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