|Scientific Name:||Bradypus torquatus|
|Species Authority:||Illiger, 1811|
Three genetically distinct populations of this species occur in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro (Moraes-Barros et al. 2002, 2006; Lara-Ruiz et al. 2008). The northern population (in southern Bahia) might be considered a separate subspecies (Lara-Ruiz et al. 2008), although indistinguishable from the others in external morphology (A. Chiarello pers. comm. 2010).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii) ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Chiarello, A. & Moraes-Barros, N.|
|Reviewer/s:||Hayssen, V. & Abba, A.M.|
Bradypus torquatus was previously listed as Endangered based on its very restricted extent of occurrence. However, new data and a detailed range analysis based on all confirmed locations and habitat preferences revealed that the extent of occurrence is larger than previously thought. Recent analyses of the available habitat left for Bradypus torquatus suggest that this species has an area of occupancy less than 1,000 km² (based on remaining forest within its highly fragmented range). Nevertheless, its range, area of occupancy, and habitat are in continuing decline due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Furthermore, it is threatened by hunting. Bradypus torquatus is therefore listed as Vulnerable, with the caveat that a re-assessment should be performed as soon as more data on the wild populations become available.
Bradypus torquatus is restricted to the Atlantic coastal forests of eastern Brazil. Historically, it possibly occurred throughout the coastal forest of Bahia through to the state of Pernambuco (footnote by O. Pinto in Wied's 19th century account, Coimbra-Filho 1972). At present, the southern part of the state of Bahia is the primary stronghold for the species. A recent record of the species is in the state of Sergipe (Chagas et al. 2009) but thus far no records have been collected in the adjacent state of Alagoas. The extensive deforestation of suitable habitat in this state suggests that it is unlikely to survive there. A natural biogeographic gap occurs in northern Espírito Santo, perhaps due to a higher degree of deciduity in the forests of this region (Hirsh and Chiarello in press). The species does not occur from the left bank of Doce River to the vicinity of Mucuri River. It has been reported from extreme northern Minais Gerais on the left bank of Jequitinhonha River. Bradypus torquatus has been introduced to some National Parks in Espírito Santo (Caparaó National Park) and Rio de Janeiro (Tijuca National Park), among other areas, although it is not known if the species is still present at these sites. It ranges from sea level to 1,290 m asl.
Native:Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
In some parts of Bahia and Espírito Santo, the animals are locally abundant in forest fragments (Chiarello pers. comm. 2010) although the population density is not well known. Studies of population genetics indicate no gene flow between the populations of southern Bahia (Ilhéus) and Espiríto Santo (Santa Teresa), and those of Poço das Antas (Rio de Janeiro). It appears that these populations have been isolated before the anthropogenic fragmentation of habitat, possibly beginning in the Pleistocene (Moraes-Barros et al. 2006, Lara-Ruiz et al. 2008). In general, little genetic diversity is exhibited within individual populations, but the northernmost population (Bahia) is the genetically more diverse (Moraes-Barros et al. 2006, Lara-Ruiz et al. 2008). Overall, the global population of Bradypus torquatus is assumed to be decreasing in response to the continuing loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat, the Atlantic Forest (Ribeiro et al. 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||This largely arboreal species is found in wet tropical forest, most typically in areas with an annual precipitation of 1,200 mm or higher and lacking a dry season. Most records are from evergreen forests, and just a handful of sightings are from semi-deciduous forests (Hirsch and Chiarello in press). It can be found in secondary forest habitats, including cabrucas (cocoa plantation under native forest in southern Bahia; Cassano et al. in press). Some animals have been sighted in forest fragments as small as 20 ha, although the long-term persistence of populations at these sites is unknown. It is a strict folivore that feeds on a relatively small number of food plants; Chiarello (1998) found that leaves from 21 species formed 99% of the diet of 3 animals. Like other congeneric sloths, animals descend from trees periodically to urinate and defecate. The females give birth to one young annually, predominantly at the end of the wet season and beginning of the dry season (February-April) and copulation concentrates in the late dry and early wet seasons (August-October; Dias et al. 2009). Sexual maturity is probably reached between the second and third year and longevity in the wild is over 12 years (Lara-Ruiz and Chiarello 2005).|
The rate of deforestation in the Atlantic forest of eastern Brazil has decreased dramatically in the last three decades but has not stopped (Ribeiro et al. 2009), so the pressure on habitat continues. In southern Bahia the economic crisis of the cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao) puts a pressure on farmers of this product to clear their forest to make room for other economic alternatives, mainly pastures. In other areas, native forests are cleared for other reasons, including coal production, agriculture and city sprawl. The genetic integrity of distinct populations is threatened by the release of confiscated animals at different sites without knowledge or understanding of their origins. Additional threats include subsistence hunting and accidental mortality of Bradypus torquatus on roads.
|Conservation Actions:||Bradypus torquatus is present in a number of protected areas, such as the Biological Reserves of Una (Bahia), Augusto Ruschi (Espirito Santo) and Poço das Antas (Rio de Janeiro), among others. The low genetic diversity within fragmented populations indicates a need to develop corridors of suitable habitat between these populations. Confiscated animals should be genetically characterized to determine the most appropriate release site. Data on dispersal ability, sex ratio, mating system, and population density are virtually unknown but important for conservation planning and monitoring.|
|Citation:||Chiarello, A. & Moraes-Barros, N. 2011. Bradypus torquatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
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