|Scientific Name:||Juniperus cedrus|
|Species Authority:||Webb & Berthel.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Recent Red Data books ( Bañares et al. 2008, Moreno 2008) and checklists ( Rivas-Martínez et al. 2002, Borges et al. 2008) have recognised two subspecies: Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berthel. ssp. cedrus restricted to the Canary Islands and Juniperus cedrus ssp. maderensis (Menezes) Rivas Mart., Capelo, J.C. Costa, Lousã, Fontinha, R. Jardim & M. Seq restricted to Madeira. The Madeiran taxon was originally described as Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. maderensis Menezes in 1908. This conservation assessment recognises the Canary Island and Madeiran taxa as a single species - Juniperus cedrus Webb & Berthel.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(ii,iii,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rumeu Ruiz, B, de Sequeira, M, Elliot, M & Gardner, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
The total area of occupancy (AOO) is calculated to be 29 km². The AOO is based on presence within 1 km² grid cells overlaid on 1:40,000 scale maps. Presence and absence records are derived from recent, extensive surveys carried out between 2004 and 2009 (Elliot 2009, Rumeu unpublished data 2010, Sequeira pers.comm 2010). The total population (n = ca 600) consists of five subpopulations/ locations found on five islands (Gran Canaria (n =12), Gomera (n = 100), La Palma (n = 250), Tenerife (n = 200) and Madeira (n = ca 40)). Each subpopulation/location is more than 60 km from the next and no single subpopulation contains more than 50% of the total population. These subpopulations are regarded as severely fragmented. The total population is estimated to be less than 600 mature trees and no subpopulation contains more than 250 mature individuals. Regeneration in some subpopulations is poor or absent, possibly due to reduced seed set (Rumeu et al. 2009), the decline of avian dispersers (Nogales 1999, Rumeu 2009) and the effects of grazing. In some locations fires have led to the loss of mature individuals. Together, these factors contribute to a continuing decline in the quality of habitat and number of mature individuals. On the basis of these data, Juniperus cedrus meets the criteria for Endangered.
Restricted to the Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Gomera, La Palma and Tenerife) and Madeira (from Pico Arieiro to Pico Ruivo).
Native:Portugal (Madeira); Spain (Canary Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The population is estimated to be c. 600 sexually mature individuals.
Canary Islands - 572 individuals: Gran Canaria 12; La Palma 250; Tenerife 200; La Gomera 100 (Elliot 2009).Madeira - one population with c. 40 individuals (Sequeira 2010, unpublished data).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The subpopulation on
The current distribution pattern and the restriction to almost inaccessible sites in the Canary Islands and on
|Use and Trade:||
Historically the wood was exploited for its valuable, aromatic timber, and used by local people in carpentry for a various items of furniture, construction and for making boxes because of the wood's capacity to deter insect pests (Vieira 2002). Today, due to its rarity and protected status, J. cedrus is not utilized.
There are a variety of threats, the most severe of which is fire. In 2007 a fire on Tenerife (El Teide National Park) destroyed 30 old-growth trees. Other threats, which are detrimental to recruitment, include goats and the release of Barbery sheep (La Palma) and Muflón (Tenerife) for hunting purposes. Global warming could affect the amount of seasonal rainfall and moisture from coastal fog.
Historically over-grazing, cutting and burning have been significant threats to the population. Although these threats are less today, the fast expansion of Cytisus scoparius following grazing is certainly a potential threat as it greatly increases the fire risks.
Juniperus cedrus is a protected species in the Canary Islands and occurs in three National Parks; Parque Nacional del Teide, Tenerife; Parque Nacional de Garajonay, La Gomera; Parque Nacional de la Caldera de Taburiente, La Palma. The area affected by fire in Parque Nacional del Teide is being restored by using local provenance material (seed). In Gran Canaria, the subpopulation in Montaña del Cedro is included within the Reserva Natural Especial de Güigüi. This sub-population is considered as 'in danger of extinction' in the Regional Catalogue of Threatened Species (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente 2009). On Madeira it is protected within the Parque Natural da Madeira (Natura 2000) where all goats have been removed above 1,400 m under the authority of Direcção Regional de Florestas. This has had a positive effect on the general vegetation, but as J. cedrus is a slow growing tree, any benefits are unlikely to be seen for several years.
|Citation:||Rumeu Ruiz, B, de Sequeira, M, Elliot, M & Gardner, M. 2011. Juniperus cedrus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 May 2015.|
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