|Scientific Name:||Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A3cde ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Duarte, J.M.B, Vogliotti, A., Cartes, J.L. & Oliveira, M.L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Zanetti, E.S.Z. & González, S.|
This classification is the same as that of the Brazilian official list of threatened fauna (Duarte et al. 2012). This species is listed Vulnerable under A3cde because a population reduction of 30% is suspected for the next three generations (15 years), and there is no perspective of cessation of the impacts that are causing this reduction. This suspected decline is caused by edge effects in the small forest remnants occupied by the species, poaching, predation by domestic dogs, agrochemicals and diseases acquired from domestic ungulates.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Known from a small sample of specimens in museums, this species was formerly included within the Little Dwarf Brocket, Mazama rufina (Redford and Eisenberg 1992). For Redford and Eisenberg (1992) and Eisenberg and Redford (1999) this species occurs in southeast Paraguay, north of Misiones Province in Argentina, and in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais (extreme south), São Paulo (except Serra do Mar), Mato Grosso do Sul (south and southeast), Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul (north). However, this distribution is not consistent with the origin of scarce material in the Brazilian scientific collections that restrict its distribution to the southwest of Sao Paulo (to the south of Paranapanema River), Parana, Santa Catarina and north of Rio Grande do Sul (Rossi 2000).|
The loss of preferential habitats could have caused the occupation of forest formations less preferred by the species. This would explain the recent records in the east of Parana and Santa Catarina (Montane Forest and Submontane Ombrophilous Dense Forest; Margarido and Braga 2004, J.M.B. Duarte pers. comm.) and the absence of historical records in these regions (Rossi 2000).
The National Museum of Natural History of Paraguay has records of M. nana in San Rafael National Park region (Gamarra de Fox and Martin 1996) and in Argentina, this species may be found in almost all the remaining natural forests of Misiones Province (D.M. Varella pers. comm.).
Native:Argentina; Brazil; Paraguay
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no precise information on the population size in any of the areas where it has been observed nor on the degree of connectivity between them, but it is likely that its subpopulations are decreasing due to the decline of the moist lowland forests within its range. Although it seems to be tolerant to fragmented and secondary forest formations, it is likely that its subpopulations are declining or will be declining due to issues including feral dogs, hunting and ruminant diseases that are boosted by the fragmentation process.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Recent and historical data suggest that Mazama nana is associated to the Araucaria moist forests (Mixed Ombrophilous Forest) and its ecotones with the adjacent ecoregions: Paraná-Paraíba interior forests (Semideciduous Seasonal Forests); Serra do Mar coastal forests (Ombrophilous Dense Forest) and Cerrado (Abril et al. 2010). Some authors mention its preference for mountainous habitats (Cabrera and Yepes 1960, Duarte 1996, Di Bitetti et al. 2008), but presence in plain and soft hilly landforms is common throughout its distribution.|
Brazilian Dwarf Brocket is sympatric with other Mazama species, at least along its ecotonal areas. In Paraguay, Argentina and the western parts of Brazil, this species appears to be partially segregated of M. americana by using habitats with dense lower strata, abundant bamboo understory and secondary growth forests (Chebez and Varela 2001, Vogliotti 2008).
There is no specific information about its spatial, behavioural or feeding ecology, which are probably similar to the general pattern of Mazama, including: nocturnal, solitary, territorial and sedentary habits on small home ranges (Abril et al. 2010).
Small subpopulations still persists in forest remnants among agricultural landscapes where they are subject to population decline, extinction and recolonization processes. Non-invasive studies using faecal DNA markers are in course to access initial information on population ecology of M. nana in protected or fragmented areas in Brazil.
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Use and Trade:||This species is used locally for food.|
|Major Threat(s):||In spite of all the uncertainties in ecological and biological aspects, it is the most threatened deer of Brazil and possibly of the Neotropical region. The subpopulation isolation caused by habitat loss in the past must be the main threat to the maintenance of the remaining subpopulations at the present time. The fragmentation tends to increase pressures, such as hunting, predation by dogs, exposure to the diseases of domestic species, and the progressive degradation of small forest fragments (edge effects; Galindo- Leal and De Gusmão Câmara 2003). Cytogenetic analysis of this species found extensive intraspecific chromosome polymorphism that could affect the reproductive efficiency and population sustainability (Abril and Duarte 2008). In Paraguay, the subpopulations are also threatened due to loss of habitat (J.L. Cartes pers. comm.). One of the major conservation problems is hunting, mainly in the provincial parks and private forests. Moreover, the construction of roads has increased the number of road-kills and this could be affecting the subpopulations.|
In Brazil with respect to protected areas, this species is mentioned in some national parks (Iguaçu, Araucárias, Serra do Itajaí), state parks (Lauraceas, Pau Oco, Boguaçu, Vila do Espírito Santo, São Camilo), private reserves of the natural patrimony (Federal das Araucárias, Monte Alegre Farm) and Mata Preta Ecological Station (J.M.B. Duarte and M.L. Oliveira pers. comm.). In Misiones, Argentina, many conservation units shelter important subpopulations of this species, such as the Iguaçu National Park and the State Parks of Urugua-í, Foerster, Piñalito, Cruce Caballero, Esmeralda, Moconá and Cuña Pirú (D.M. Varela pers. comm.). In Paraguay, the majority of the Atlantic Forest habitats are extinct, what remains is in protected areas such as Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú and the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant Reserve. Currently, San Rafael National Park, which has records of the species, suffers many pressures and threats (J.L. Cartes pers. comm.).
In Brazil this species have been included in the State Red Lists to improve the local conservation actions (Duarte et al. 2012). The National Agency for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) has developed a National Conservation Action Plan (PAN) for deer species to implement conservation actions for endangered Brazilian species in terms of public policies, research priorities and population management. In Argentina, M. nana is considered to be Vulnerable although the subpopulations of Misiones Province seem to be stable (Diaz and Ojeda 2000).
|Citation:||Duarte, J.M.B, Vogliotti, A., Cartes, J.L. & Oliveira, M.L. 2015. Mazama nana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T29621A22154379.Downloaded on 18 October 2017.|
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