Bitis inornata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Viperidae

Scientific Name: Bitis inornata (A. Smith, 1838)
Common Name(s):
English Plain Mountain Adder
Bitis cornuta ssp. inornata Underwood, 1968
Echidna inornata A. Smith, 1838
Taxonomic Notes: Until recently, several taxa were included under the name Bitis cornuta. These included B. inornata, B. albanica, B. armata and B. rubida, which are all now recognized as full species (Branch 1998, 1999; Marais 2004; Alexander and Marais 2007; Phelps 2009).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2013-05-16
Assessor(s): Turner, A.A.
Reviewer(s): Alexander, G.J. & Marais, J.
Occurs in a restricted area (extent of occurrence (EOO) is 4,050 km2) and is known from only two locations [B1a]. Its habitat has undergone significant transformation [B1b(iii)], mostly through agricultural development. Although this adder prefers higher lying areas that are less subject to intensive agriculture (mostly grazing), altered fire regimes are likely to have a detrimental effect. The extent to which this habitat transformation has fragmented populations is unknown. Specimens are seldom encountered, indicating that the species is naturally rare and possibly becoming increasingly scarce (Marais 2004; W.R. Branch pers. comm.). The species qualifies for listing as Endangered.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Endemic to the Eastern Cape, South Africa, where it is limited to the Sneeuberg Range and surrounding mountains near Graaff-Reinet. The northernmost locality (3124CB) is a Virtual Museum record.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:1620
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:No information on population size or trend is currently available.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Occurs at high altitudes (>1,500 m) in grassland areas. Takes cover in tussocks of grass and under slabs of rock on the tops of mountains (Branch 1998).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):3-4

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: There is anecdotal evidence to suggest the presence of this species in the pet trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):  There is increasing agricultural impact on the habitat of this species, ranging from grazing to the setting of regular fires.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Design a Biodiversity Management Plan for the Species (BMP-S). Manage specific areas within the range to protect this snake from the negative impacts of agriculture and fire. Conduct a study aimed at gathering data on distribution and habitat requirements.

Citation: Turner, A.A. 2017. Bitis inornata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T2817A110343404. . Downloaded on 26 May 2018.
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