Batrachoides manglae 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Batrachoidiformes Batrachoididae

Scientific Name: Batrachoides manglae
Species Authority: Cervigón, 1964
Common Name(s):
English Cotuero Toadfish
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. and Fricke, R. (eds). 2015. Catalog of Fishes: genera, species, references. Updated 1 October 2015. Available at: (Accessed: 1 October 2015).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2012-08-20
Assessor(s): Collette, B., Aiken, K.A. & Polanco Fernandez, A.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Harwell, H.
This species is distributed from Colombia to Venezuela and is relatively common where it occurs in shallow coastal habitats, especially mangrove lagoons, but also reef structure and over muddy bottoms. Mangrove declines are suspected in Colombia, however, this species does not appear to be mangrove-dependent. Concerns on habitat degradation led to Colombia labelling this a 'vulnerable species of concern'. It is exploited by a minor fishery off Venezuela. There are no known major threats and its distribution does not qualify for restricted range, therefore, it is listed as Least Concern. Further research on the level of exploitation for this species should be investigated.

Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Vulnerable (VU)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Batrachoides manglae is distributed in the western Atlantic Ocean where it was initially considered a Venezuelan endemic, found along the Isla de Margarita, Isla de Cubagua, and the Peninsula de Araya (Collette and Russo 1981, Cervigón 1995). However, its presence in Colombia has also been confirmed; in Bahia Portete (Garzón-Ferreira 1989); Palomino (A. Acero pers. comm.) and Magdalena (Santos-Martínez and Acero 1991, Ibagón et al. 2010). Therefore, its full range in the southern Caribbean is from Colombia (Gulf of Morrosquillo) to Venezuela (Paria Peninsula). Records from Isla de Providencia are not valid (A. Polanco pers. comm. 2015). Its estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) is 310,132 km² (based on a minimum convex polygon drawn around the extent of its range on a 0-10 m bathymetric layer). Its estimated area of occupancy (AOO) is 27,727 km² (calculated by clipping the distribution polygon to the 0-10 m bathymetric layer extracted from ETOPO). The area of mangrove habitat within its range is 96 km² (USGS mangrove layer 2011), however, it also occurs in a variety of other shallow habitats.
Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 27727
Lower depth limit (metres): 10
Upper depth limit (metres): 1
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species appears to be relatively common (B. Collette pers. comm. 2012). Collette and Russo (1981) examined 28 specimens from 11 collections.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Batrachoides manglae inhabits muddy bottoms in shallow waters and is especially abundant in mangrove-lined lagoons (Collette 2002). It is sometimes found in rocky reefs, caves and coral formations (Garzon-Ferreira 1989, Cervigon 1991, 1992). It feeds mainly on small gastropods and crustaceans. Maximum size reported is about 30 cm total length (TL), although it is common to 20 cm (Collette 2002). Males start ripening by 11 cm standard length (SL); a mature female of 15 cm SL had 114 eggs of 2.2 to 3.0 mm diameter (Collette and Russo 1981).
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is of minor importance in the commercial fishery, but species specific statistics are not reported. It is caught mainly with traps, but also with bottom trawls. It is marketed fresh, but the flesh is considered of low quality (Collette 2002). In Venezuela, it is commercially exploited and is also taken artisanally with traps and spear guns (Cervigon 1992).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is of minor importance in the commercial fishery, it is not known if this represents a major threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: In Colombia, this species is listed as Vulnerable (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial 2010). It occurs in at least one protected area in Isla de San Bernardo (Invemar 2012). Further research into the level of exploitation of this species is needed.

Citation: Collette, B., Aiken, K.A. & Polanco Fernandez, A. 2015. Batrachoides manglae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T2644A16636450. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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