|Scientific Name:||Barbus barbus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Kottelat, M. & Smith, K.|
The species has a very wide distribution. However it is locally threatened by water pollution and river regulation, especially in the Baltic drainages, Elbe, South Bug and Dniepr. Sharp declines due to construction of large reservoirs and pollution occurred during 20th century. However has since stabilized at a moderate level. Was heavily impacted by pollution in central Europe but populations have mostly recovered.
European Union 27 = LC. Same rationale as above.
|Range Description:||North of the Pyrénées and Alps, from Adour (France) eastward to Neman (Lithuania, Russia) drainages, in rivers draining to Atlantic, North Sea and southern Baltic Sea; Danube to Dniepr drainages in northern Black Sea basin; southeastern England north to Yorkshire. In almost all Mediterranean drainages of France. Locally introduced in northern and central Italy, rivers Wear, Tees and Medway and most western drainages of England.|
Native:Andorra; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; France; Germany; Hungary; Italy; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
From premontane to lowland reaches of clear, warm, medium sized to large rivers with fast current and gravel bottom. Occasionally in lakes. Spawns usually in very shallow, fast-flowing waters, in riffles. Overwinters often in large aggregations inactive or active in slow-flowing river habitats.
Adults often shoal, hiding under overhanging trees or bridges during day. Most active during dusk and dawn. Lives up to 15 years. Males usually spawn for the first time at 2-5 years, females 1-2 years later. Spawns in May-July, rarely until September when temperature reaches 15°C. Females spawn several times, usually at intervals of 10-15 days each season. Adults often undertake considerable spawning migrations. Lake populations migrate to tributaries. Individual females spawn with several males. Males assemble at spawning grounds and follow ripe females, often with much splashing, to shallow riffles. Males may exhibit courting or sneaking tactics in spawning sites. Courting males follow females to spawning site and, during the spawning act, one male swims head to head with the female. Sneaking males, waiting in the spawning site, then join the couple and try to fertilize eggs. Up to 130 males have been reported to be involved in a single spawning act. Females deposit 2-3 portions of non-sticky eggs into excavations made in the gravel. Feeding larvae drift a short distance from spawning site to shallow shoreline habitats. Larvae and juveniles are benthic, in very shallow shoreline habitats. They leave the shores for faster-flowing waters as they grow. Larvae and juveniles active during both day and night. Feeds on a wide variety of benthic invertebrates, small fish and sometimes on algae.
|Use and Trade:||It is harvested for human consumption, and for sport fishing.|
|Major Threat(s):||Water pollution, dams, river regulation.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information available.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. 2013. Barbus barbus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 August 2015.|
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