|Scientific Name:||Zapus trinotatus|
|Species Authority:||Rhoads, 1895|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Z. trinotatus and Z. princeps formerly were considered conspecific by some authors; they were regarded as separate species by Baker et al. (2003) and Holden and Musser (in Wilson and Reeder 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern because it has a wide range, including some protected areas, there are no major threats to the species overall, and the populations are not declining fast enough to qualify in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species occurs from southwestern British Columbia in Canada, south through western Washington, coastal and west-central Oregon, along the humid coastal strip mostly west of the crest of the Cascade-Sierra Nevada chain through California to Point Reyes and Elk Valley, Marin County, California in the United States (Gannon 1988).
Subspecies orarius is known to occur at locations from the Golden Gate to the Point Reyes Peninsula, San Francisco Bay, California. It is isolated from other subspecies of Zapus by at least 100 km.
Native:Canada; United States
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Populations of Pacific jumping mouse fluctuate from year to year, from common to rare throughout its limited geographical range (Gannon 1999).
Most of the distribution records for this subspecies orarius are from before 1945, however, the population is thought to persist over most of its historical range. Small patches of habitat still exist, although these are very disjunct.
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Pacific jumping mice utilize several habitat types, depending on the location within its range. Coastal populations are mostly found in marshy or riparian areas within redwood and Douglas fir forests. Inland montane habitats include dense forests, riparian areas and alpine meadows. Densest populations are found in areas where annual rainfall exceeds 30 cm (Gannon 1988). This species is nocturnal and crepuscular and hibernates for up to six months of the year, depending on ambient temperature. Primarily grainivorous but may also feed on fruit, insects, mollusks and fish (Gannon 1988).
Nests are built in burrows below ground, as deep as 76 cm below the surface. Burrows are often connected at a central chamber (Gannon 1999).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to the species overall. The subspecies orarius has an extremely limited distribution and its fragmented nature makes it more sensitive to the effects of habitat modification.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species' range includes a few protected areas. The subspecies orarius is a federal C2 candidate taxon and a California Species of Special Concern. The known population occurs within the protection of the Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreational Area. It is thought that additional populations may occur in Mount Tamalpais State Park.|
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Zapus trinotatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 22 August 2014.|
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