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Xerosecta adolfi 

Scope: Global, Europe & Mediterranean
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_onStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Hygromiidae

Scientific Name: Xerosecta adolfi Pfeiffer, 1854
Taxonomic Notes: According to Gittenberger (1993), the similar Xerosecta species living in the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula (X. cespitum, X. promissa, X. reboudiana and X. adolfi) can be identified by some shell features. Puente (1994) and Arrébola (1995) indicated that sometimes reproductive system studies are required for an unambiguous identification.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-08-19
Assessor(s): Arrébola, J.
Reviewer(s): Martínez-Ortí, A., Lutz, M.L., Cuttelod, A. & Neubert, E.
Justification:
This species is endemic to the south of Spain and has a very restricted extent of occurrence (EOO = 600 km2) and area of occupancy (AOO = 400 km2). Its habitat is threatened by agriculture and urban expansion. It occurs in three locations. It is therefore listed as Endangered (EN) B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the province of Almería (south-east of Spain). It lives in Campo de Dalías and Nijar depression (Arrébola 1995; Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Spain (Spain (mainland))
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:400
Number of Locations:3
Upper elevation limit (metres):200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are few population data about this species. Nevertheless, given the substantial increase in greenhouse agriculture and tourist development during the last decades in the geographic area where this species lives, it is possible to infer a demographic decreases/fluctuations in at least two locations. The subpopulations are highly fragmented and declining due to agricultural developments and changes in land use, especially in the plain of Campo de Dalias (where 85% of the surface is used in a way that prevent the presence of a continuous subpopulation of X. adolfi, 82% being used to grow crops under plastics). In the eastern part of the range (Níjar depression), where two new subpopulations have recently been found, there are large areas of grassland and scattered scrub, which is considered a suitable habitat for this species, and therefore where potentially larger subpopulations could exist. Unfortunately, more than half of the localities sampled in this area did not show any sign of the species. Finally, the life cycle is unknown but, as in other xerothermophilous species in the area, aestivation must play an important role in its survival (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The natural habitat of X. adolfi is considered to be areas of grassland and scrub steppe with scattered bush and shrub. It also appears in human-modified biotopes and pre-coastal environments but not dunes or salty systems. In the inland areas, it is not able to colonize the surrounding mountains (Sierra de Gádor and Alhamilla). The life cycle is unknown but, as in other xerothermophilous species in the area, aestivation must play an important role in its survival (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Threats to habitat: only one of the known locations is in a good state of preservation, being part of a protected site. The other two are threatened, mainly by the expansion of greenhouse agriculture. This factor, together with the urban expansion, have reduced the potential area of occupancy up to the 43.4% of the known extent of occurrence. Both factors have led to a decline in area of occupancy of 8.5% between 1991 and 1999. In the Níjar depression, where the largest areas of grassland and scattered scrub are, the growth of greenhouses has led to an habitat loss of 4.1% between 1991 and 1999. The area occupied by greenhouses has grown by  34.5% in that period demonstrating a clear increasing trend of this threat (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009). Threats to the population: subpopulations affected by the greenhouse agriculture are subject to soil and water contamination by pesticide treatments. The ground water overexploitation has produced an increase in salinity in most of the aquifers.  In this context, the mortality increases and the species is gradually replaced by other species, more resistant to these human activities and impacts, such as Rumina decollata, Theba pisana or Otala lactea murcia (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species was classified as LR/nt by the IUCN Mollusc Specialist Group in 1996 (IUCN 2006). It is considered as Endangered (EN) in both the Red book of Andalusian Invertebrates (Arrébola and Ruiz 2008) and the Spanish Atlas of Threatened Invertebrates (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola and Puente 2009). It is also included in the "Conservation and Sustainable Use of Andalusian Snails Program"  promoted by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Environment (Junta de Andalucía). It is crucial to elaborate and implement an integral recovery plan for the west coast of the province of Almería that would benefit not only  X. adolfi, but also other threatened species in this area, i.e.: the terrestrial snails Iberus g. gualtieranus (Linnaeus, 1758), H. stiparum (Pfeiffer, 1854), Theba subdentata helicella (Wood, 1828), Xerotricha mariae (Gasull, 1972), Hatumi cobosi (O. de Zárate, 1962), Xerocrassa cobosi (O. de Zárate, 1962) and Iberus gualtieranus mariae (Cobos, 1979) (Ruiz, Cárcaba, Arrébola y Puente, 1998). In this plan, the steps needed to ensure the conservation of the species should be clearly defined.

Citation: Arrébola, J. 2011. Xerosecta adolfi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T23142A9418531. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
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