|Scientific Name:||Vimba vimba|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Bogutskaya, N., & Smith, K. (IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Unit)|
A widespread species but semi-anadromous populations almost lost in Black Sea (due to damming in the 1950s and 1960s) and Baltic Sea (possibly due to pollution), and extirpated in the Crimea. However, overall the species is still widespread and has no major population decline or current major widespread threats.
|Range Description:||Caspian, Black and Baltic Sea basins (Sweden and Finland north to 62-63°N), North Sea basin from Elbe to Ems drainages. In Finland restricted to coastal waters. In Black Sea basin, absent in Anatolia west of Çoruh drainage (eastern Anatolia). Extirpated in Crimea. Introduced in Rhine.|
Native:Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Turkey; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||semi-anadromous populations declined in the Baltic and Black Sea basins.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Brackish estuaries, large to medium rivers and some large subalpine lakes. Sedentary populations occur even in small rivers of barbel zone. Spawns on gravel in riffles in shallow, fast-flowing streams and rivers.
Lives up to 15 years. Spawns for the first time at 3-5 years. Spawns in May-July (April in Terek and some subalpine lakes) when temperature rises above 15°C. Semi-anadromous populations forage in freshened parts of sea and undertake long distance spawning migrations. Lacustrine populations migrate to fast-flowing tributaries. In Dniepr and Kuban, spawning migration starts in September, decreases in winter and resumes in March-May. Individual females spawn several times during a period of 2-3 weeks. Usually spawns for several years. Spent adults return to foraging habitats. Feeds predominantly on small molluscs and insect larvae.
|Major Threat(s):||Pollution is the possible reason for the population reduction of the semi-anadromous populations in the Baltic basin. Damming in the 1950s and 1960s in the Black Sea basin.|
|Conservation Actions:||No information.|
|Citation:||Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. 2008. Vimba vimba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 September 2015.|
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