Remiz pendulinus


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Remiz pendulinus
Species Authority: (Linaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Eurasian Penduline-tit
Taxonomic Notes: Remiz pendulinus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into R. pendulinus and R. macronyx following Harrap and Quinn (1996) who recognises four species of Remiz: pendulinus, macronyx, coronatus and consobrinus. Eck and Martens (2006) lump macronyx with pendulinus and consobrinus with coronatus citing hybridisation between macronyx and pendulinus on the north and southwest shores of the Caspian Sea as a factor, but they fail to adequately justify their treatment of R. coronatus and R. consobrinus as conspecific. Examination of specimens and literature by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group suggests that the four taxa are best treated as separate species owing to consistent morphological and ecological differences between them with habitat partitioning occurring where two taxa occur in sympatry. This arrangement best fits the geographic distribution of these taxa.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Calvert, R.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
2012 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Albania; Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kuwait; Latvia; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Saudi Arabia; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine
Bahrain; Liechtenstein; Morocco; Oman; Qatar; Tunisia; United Kingdom
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 210000-420000 breeding pairs, equating to 630000-1260000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population
For further information about this species, see 22736148_remiz_pendulinus.pdf.
A PDF viewer such as Adobe Reader is required.
Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Remiz pendulinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <>. Downloaded on 04 September 2015.
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