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Buteo buteo

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA AVES FALCONIFORMES ACCIPITRIDAE

Scientific Name: Buteo buteo
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name/s:
English Common Buzzard
Taxonomic Notes: Buteo buteo (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was split into B. buteo and B. bannermani by Hazevoet (1995). Clouet and Wink (2000) found that bannermani appears to share a common ancestry with an unnamed form of buzzard from Socotra commonly known as "socotrae". Clouet and Wink (2000) and Hazevoet (1995) also noted that bannermani and socotrae have a close genetic affinity with B. rufinus. Studies to date present preliminary findings and it is not possible at this time to form a definitive conclusion so at present bannermani and socotrae are treated as conspecific with B. rufinus but possibly distinct at the subspecific level.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor/s: BirdLife International
Reviewer/s: Butchart, S.
Facilitator/s: Calvert, R., Khwaja, N.
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History:
2012 Least Concern

Geographic Range [top]

Countries:
Native:
Afghanistan; Albania; Algeria; Andorra; Angola (Angola); Armenia (Armenia); Austria; Azerbaijan; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Bulgaria; Burundi; Cambodia; Central African Republic; China; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Estonia; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Gabon; Georgia; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Ireland; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Kuwait; Kyrgyzstan; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Latvia; Lebanon; Lesotho; Liberia; Libya; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malawi; Malta; Mauritania; Moldova; Monaco; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Netherlands; Northern Mariana Islands; Norway; Oman; Pakistan; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Rwanda; Saudi Arabia; Senegal; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; South Africa; South Sudan; Spain (Canary Is.); Sri Lanka; Sudan; Swaziland; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Taiwan, Province of China; Tajikistan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Uganda; Ukraine; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Western Sahara; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Vagrant:
Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Chad; Faroe Islands; Gambia; Ghana; Iceland; Indonesia; Malaysia; Maldives; Mali; Nigeria; Philippines; Qatar; Sierra Leone; Singapore; Somalia; Togo
Present - origin uncertain:
Guam; Palau
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated at 4,000,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001).

Population Trend: Increasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Behaviour Populations in Scandinavia and most of the former Soviet Union are migratory, wintering in Africa and southern Asia. Those elsewhere are resident (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Migrants move south between August and November and make the return journey between February and May. Birds tend to occur singly or in pairs, sometimes forming small family groups at roosts. However, they can migrate in groups, and as birds avoid sea crossings (and even freshwater bodies) as far as possible, they form huge concentrations at peninsulas and narrow straits (Brown et al. 1982, Snow and Perrins 1998, Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). Migration is strictly diurnal, and also often follows mountain ranges and ridges (Brown et al. 1982). Habitat It inhabits a wide variety of habitats but requires at least some tree cover for nesting and roosting; ideal habitat appears to be forest edge, or mosaics of forest and open areas (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Diet It is versatile depending on the prey animals available, with small mammals usually predominating, but in some areas invertebrates making up the majority (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Breeding site The nest is built on a fork or branch of a large tree, usually near to forest edge (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Management information Although versatile in its habitat choice, trees are required particularly on its breeding grounds (del Hoyo et al. 1994).
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In the U.K., it suffered a significant reduction in available prey in the 1950s when a myxomatosis epidemic killed off c.99% of the rabbit population. The most important historical threat though has been from persecution, including through poisoned bait traps, with pesticides and habitat loss also causing some declines (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It is highly vulnerable to the impacts of potential wind energy developments (Strix 2012).
Citation: BirdLife International 2013. Buteo buteo. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2014.
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