|Scientific Name:||Amaurospiza carrizalensis|
|Species Authority:||Lentino & Restall, 2003|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Recent mitochondrial genetic data show that the genus Amaurospiza is not a member of the Emberizidae and instead indicate strong support for placement in the Cardinalidae (AOU 2009, SACC 2008).|
|Identification information:||12 cm. Male is glossy blue-black with sooty black wings and brighter blue shoulder. Underwing coverts and axillars are white. Bill is large, deep and conical, dark grey. Female is light buff-brown with an olive-grey bill. Similar spp separable from other Amaurospiza by the denisty of colouration and black flammulations on the breast as well as overall size.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Ascanio, D., Freile, J., Lentino, M. & Restall, R.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A. & Ashpole, J|
This species, described in 2003, was known from a single location where its habitat has now been destroyed. It was subsequently found at several locations near to the type locality, and believed to have an extremely small population occupying a tiny range. Further surveys suggest that its range and potential population may be higher than initially suspected, but for the present it is maintained as Critically Endangered. With increased knowledge of the range and potential population of this species it is probable that it may be downlisted.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||This species was recently described following collection of the holotype on Isla Carrizal in the Río Caroní, Venezuela. Since then habitat at the type locality on the island has been destroyed in the development of Guri Dam. Surveys in late 2007 and 2008 recorded the species in seven areas in the lower Caroní basin (M. Lentino in litt. 2008), and further fieldwork increased the number of known sites to fourteen (M. Lentino in litt. 2010). For the moment, it is assumed to have an extremely small population and to be declining as other potentially suitable habitat continues to be destroyed. However, the low number of records may be partly due to the difficulty in surveying its habitat, which as a result has rarely been explored. Some 2,482 km2 of suitable spiny bamboo habitat has been mapped (M. Lentino in litt. 2010).|
Native:Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Number of Locations:||1|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||95|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Although it has now been found at several localities since destruction of the type locality, the global population is nevertheless assumed to be tiny, with fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals.
Trend Justification: Habitat at the type locality, Isla Carrizal, was destroyed and then flooded during the Guri Dam development, and this development destroyed other potentially suitable habitat, therefore the species's population is suspected to be declining, although the likely rate of decline has not been estimated. However, a significant proportion of its habitat is pristine, far from roads and unlikely to be under any threat (M. Lentino in litt. 2010).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It has been found in stands of spiny Guadua latifolia and Ripidocladus spp. bamboo forest, and at least four of the recent localities the birds were in or next to stands of Guadua angustifolia (M. Lentino in litt. 2008). Its bill shows some degree of specialisation for feeding (R. Restall in litt. 2006). From stomach content analysis of collected specimens it is known to feed on weevil spp. which may be specific to its spiny forest habitat (R. Restall in litt. 2006).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
Habitat at the type locality was all destroyed during the development of the Guri Dam, which subsequently flooded this location. This development also destroyed other potentially suitable habitat in this area.
Conservation and Research Actions Underway
The species continues to be a focus for research by the Colección Ornitológica Phelps (COP), and following the destruction of habitat at the type locality four organizations (the hydro-electric company Edelca, COP, Conservation International and the Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela) designed a two-year project to identify, locate and survey potential habitat (M. Lentino in litt. 2008). The spiny bamboo habitat from which the species was described is not only extremely challenging/dangerous to survey in, it also lies beneath the forest canopy and hence aerial survey methods cannot be used to detect habitat. A project to conserve the species at the Lower Caroni river was awarded funding from the Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund in 2014 (Anon. 2014).
Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Survey potentially suitable spiny bamboo forest in the eastern reaches of the Llanos, between the Tigre and the Morichal Largo rivers (M. Lentino in litt. 2010). Survey potentially suitable spiny bamboo forest along the Caroní and Orinoco rivers in Venezuala and Colombia. Monitor the loss and degradation of potentially suitable habitat. Designate areas of potentially suitable habitat as protected.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Amaurospiza carrizalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22733800A83759586. . Downloaded on 14 February 2016.|
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