Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Turdidae

Scientific Name: Zoothera leucolaema
Species Authority: (Salvadori, 1892)
Common Name(s):
English Enggano Thrush
Taxonomic Notes: Zoothera interpres (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into Z. interpres and Z. leucolaema by Collar (2004).

Identification information: 15-18.5 cm. A small thrush. Chestnut-brown crown to nape, russet-brown mantle, back and scapulars to uppertail-coverts, two broad white wing-bars. White chin to upper breast, blackish face, sides of throat, and rest of breast. Rest of underparts pale, washed brownish on flanks. Similar spp. None in limited range. Voice Song more like a begging call than true song, in contrast with that of Z. interpres, which is slower and less varied.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Contributor(s): Brickle, N.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Bird, J., Khwaja, N., Pilgrim, J.
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it has an extremely small range, and its population may be both moderately small and continually declining owing to habitat loss, although it does tolerate degraded forest. Information is urgently required on the status and trends of habitat on Enganno, the intensity of trapping pressures, and this species's population size and trends. Such new information may show that it warrants listing in a threatened category.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Near Threatened (NT)
2006 Near Threatened (NT)
2004 Not Recognized (NR)
2000 Not Recognized (NR)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Zoothera leucolema is endemic to the small island of Enggano, 100 km off the south-west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, where it has been described as "common" (Collar 2004).

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sumatera)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 280
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 10,000-19,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Although available data are minimal, the species may be declining owing to forest loss through agricultural encroachment and hunting for the bird trade.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 10000-19999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 1 Continuing decline in subpopulations: No
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: Yes
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 100

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species is forest-dependent, although it is not restricted to primary forest and is seen regularly in degraded forest areas (Verbelen 2009). There is little information on its breeding or ecology.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat destruction on Enggano has, thus far, been minimal, but recent tentative proposals for agricultural development suggest the possibility for future radical change, and this may exert pressure on the small population of this species. Zoothera species are heavily traded elsewhere in Indonesia, because of their abilities as songsters, so it is possible that this threat is also impacting this species (Collar 2004, N. Brickle in litt. 2005). However, Verebelen (2009) considered it less likely than congeners to be targeted due to its "less than melodious song", and found no evidence or anecdote to suggest it is trapped. Further research is required to determine whether trapping really does pose a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
No conservation measures are currently known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to assess the population size and status of this species. Assess current agricultural impacts, and attempt to mitigate future plans. Assess the extent to which bird trade is a threat.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Zoothera leucolaema. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22732956A38199480. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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