Spilornis klossi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Accipitriformes Accipitridae

Scientific Name: Spilornis klossi Richmond, 1902
Common Name(s):
English Great Nicobar Serpent-eagle
Spanish Águila Culebrera de Nicobar Mayor
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Zaibin, A. & Pande, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Crosby, M., Mahood, S., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J
This recently recognised species is believed to have a small and declining population, although it is not as scarce as previously reported. Increased settlement has led to increased pressure on natural resources, and planned development projects could severely affect suitable habitat within its very small range, although its population is not regarded as severely fragmented or restricted to a few locations, hence it is classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the islands of Great Nicobar (including Pulo Kunji), Little Nicobar, Menchal, Pilo Milo and Treis in the South Nicobar island group, Nicobar islands, India (BirdLife International 2001, A. P. Zaibin in litt. 2012). There is some confusion over records in 1993, when it was reported to be "probably one of the rarest raptors in the country" and "rarely seen in the Great Nicobar island", because this has not been the impression of other fieldworkers. Following surveys in 2009-2011, it has been described as uncommon (A. P. Zaibin in litt. 2012).

Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1700
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Trend Justification:  A population decline, as yet unquantified, is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss and degradation.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is found in mixed evergreen forest, and is seen most frequently in the canopy, but also occurs in grassland and regenerating habitats, from sea-level to 100 m (A. P. Zaibin in litt. 2012). It is often seen near inland water bodies (S. Pande in litt. 2016).

Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):12.9
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Increased settlement of the islands has led to increased pressure on natural resources, and planned development projects could severely affect the habitat of this species. The use of pesticides and insecticides is increasing which could threaten the species (S. Pande in litt. 2016).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of the population. Regularly monitor the population at selected sites across its range. Investigate its abundance in forest at different levels of perturbation. Protect significant areas of intact forest in the Nicobar islands. Fully investigate the possible impact of development programs and mitigate against their impacts.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Spilornis klossi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22729465A95016577. . Downloaded on 20 June 2018.
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