Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Pelecaniformes Threskiornithidae

Scientific Name: Threskiornis solitarius
Species Authority: (Mourer-Chauviré & Moutou, 1987)
Common Name(s):
English Reunion Ibis, Réunion Ibis, Réunion Flightless Ibis, Réunion Solitaire
Raphus solitarius Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: If the Réunion 'solitaires' were indeed T. solitarius, then both Victoriornis imperialis (Hachisuka 1953) and Borbonibis latipes (Mourer-Chauviré and Moutou 1987) become synonyms.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A. & Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Brooks, D., Butchart, S., Khwaja, N. & Mahood, S.
This species was found on the Mascarene Islands, but is now considered Extinct having not been seen since 1761. Hunting is likely to have driven its decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Extinct (EX)
2004 Extinct (EX)
2000 Extinct (EX)
1994 Extinct (EX)
1988 Extinct (EX)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Threskiornis solitarius is known from bones recently discovered on Réunion (to France) (Mourer-Chauviré and Moutou 1987). It seems likely that the 'solitaire' known from numerous early accounts from Réunion (Cheke 1987) and Rodrigues, Mauritius, was in fact this ibis (Mourer-Chauviré et al. 1995), vindicating arguments for independent evolution of the Mascarene 'solitaires' (Storer 1970), in which case the last account is that of Abbé Gui Pingré (1763) a French astronomer who visited Rodrigues in 1761 to observe the transit of Venus and reported the bird to be near extinction. He had been told by the Commander, Marlène de Puvigné, that it was found only in remote corners of the island. This statement was the last mention of the bird (Staub 1996).

Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is likely to have inhabited freshwater wetlands.

Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 10.1
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Hunting is likely to have been the main cause of its demise.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Threskiornis solitarius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22728791A38970731. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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