Ninox ios 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Strigiformes Strigidae

Scientific Name: Ninox ios
Species Authority: Rasmussen, 1999
Common Name(s):
English Cinnabar Boobook, Cinnabar Boobook
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Described as new to science by Rasmussen (1999).

Identification information: c.22 cm. Small, brightly coloured hawk-owl. Uniform rufous-chestnut but for whitish scapular spots, whitish feather shafts on underparts, indistinct darker scalloping to lower underparts, and narrow, darker bars on retrices. Lacks any facial patterning. Similar spp. Speckled Hawk-owl N. punctulata, Brown Hawk-owl N. scutulata and Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl N. ochracea are larger with more prominently patterned faces. N. punctulata is spotted white on upperparts and barred white on underparts, N. ochracea and N. scutulata are dark brown, the former with paler yellow-ochre lower underparts, the latter with brown-streaked white underparts.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
Assessment of the status of this species is hampered by its considerable obscurity. Given its apparent rarity and the continuing loss and degradation of forest habitat on Sulawesi, it seems reasonable to surmise that its population is small and declining, qualifying it as Vulnerable.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2005 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Ninox ios is apparently restricted to the highlands of Sulawesi, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001), where there have been at least five documented records since the collection of the type specimen in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park in 1985, including four records from Gunung Ambang Strict Nature Reserve and one record from Lore Lindu National Park (Central Sulawesi) (Mauro 2001, King 2005, Hutchinson et al. 2006). The record from Lore Lindu National Park greatly extends its known range.

Countries occurrence:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 3700
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1450
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Deforestation has occurred at lower elevations within the species's range. This on-going threat suggests that its population is declining, although the rate of decline is suspected to be moderate owing to limited impacts on montane forests.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 2500-9999 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The six known records (including that of the type specimen) are from forest between 1,120 m and 1,700 m, and it is assumed that the species is sympatric with, but probably at higher elevations than, the Ochre-bellied Hawk-owl N. ochracea (Hutchinson et al. 2006). Observations and comparison with owlet-nightjars (Aegothelidae) suggests that the species feeds predominantly on flying insects by conducting short sallies from exposed branches (Hutchinson et al. 2006).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.1
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Forest at middle elevations on Sulawesi is relatively intact at present. However, deforestation is having a major impact in many areas, and until it is demonstrated that the species occurs more widely than its current three localities, it is precautionary to regard it as at risk simply on the basis of its potentially restricted population. The drivers behind on-going deforestation are thought to be rural development and encroachment of settlements, agricultural expansion and logging pressure. Oil palm plantations are a major cause of deforestation in many parts of Indonesia. As a species of montane areas, it is potentially at risk from the effects of projected climate change on the distribution and extent of its habitats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species occurs within three protected areas: Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, Gunung Ambang Strict Nature Reserve and Lore Lindu National Park.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish the calling periods of this species as a prerequisite to full surveys using playback, by which its true status and needs can be determined. Provide full support for the management and protection of protected areas where it is known to occur. Assess the threats to higher elevation forest on Sulawesi and take appropriate actions to conserve these areas.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Ninox ios. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22728610A37991798. . Downloaded on 25 November 2015.
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