||Oahu Amakihi, O'ahu 'Amakihi
Hemignathus flavus (Bloxham, 1827)
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
||11 cm. Small honeycreeper with short, down-curved bill. Male all golden-yellow below, sharply contrasting with olive-green upperparts. Black lores, with yellow supraloral spot. Female greenish-grey above, pale yellowish-white below, with prominent wing-bars of same colour. Dark grey lores, yellowish-white supraloral spot. Juvenile male duller than adult, with two buffy wing-bars. Similar spp. Male O`ahu `Alauahio Paroreomyza maculata has straight bill, bold yellow stripe over eye and dark stripe through eye. Female has dark line behind eye only and pale lores. Introduced Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus has straight bill, bold white eye-ring. Voice Song a vigorous trill of single notes. Call a short cat-like buzzy note. Hints Easily seen at fairly low elevation around flowering trees in mountains behind Honolulu.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
||Camp, R., Fretz, S., Gorresen, M., Shallenberger, R., VanderWerf, E. & Woodworth, B.
||Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Stattersfield, A., Stuart, T., Taylor, J.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a very small range. It is restricted to two mountain ranges on one island, and, although it has apparently adapted to non-native habitats, it remains at risk from the effects of exotic taxa, especially the possible introduction of disease-carrying mosquitoes capable of tolerating the cooler climate at high altitudes.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Hemignathus flavus is endemic to O`ahu in the Hawaiian Islands (USA). It originally occurred throughout the island, but is now restricted to the two mountain ranges. In the Wai`anae Mountains, it is uncommon and sparsely distributed, mostly above 500 m elevation. In the southern and central Ko`olau Mountains, it is locally common, occurring from the summits occasionally down to 30 m in valleys, but it becomes increasingly rare northwards and is practically absent from the northern tip of the range (Lindsey et al. 1998). The population is estimated at 20,000-60,000 birds (Jacobi and Atkinson 1995, Lindsey et al. 1998), but surveys on O`ahu, unlike those on other Hawaiian islands, have not been systematic and these estimates may be too high (R. Shallenberger in litt. 1999). Christmas bird counts indicate a population decline over the period 1958-1985 (Lindsey et al. 1998), but more recent information indicates that the population may be stable and even increasing in some areas (Jacobi and Atkinson 1995, Lindsey et al. 1998). |
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1100|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||30|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population is estimated at 20,000-60,000 birds, roughly equivalent to 13,000-40,000 mature individuals, but surveys on O`ahu, unlike those on other Hawaiian islands, have not been systematic, and these estimates may be too high (R. Shallenberger in litt. 1999).|
Trend Justification: Christmas bird counts indicate a population decline from 1958 to 1985 (Jacobi and Atkinson 1995; Lindsey et al. 1998), but more recent information indicates that the population may be stable and even increasing in some areas (Lindsey et al. 1998).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||13000-40000||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||No|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||Unknown|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|