|Scientific Name:||Pipile cumanensis (Jacquin, 1784)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
Pipile cumanensis and P. grayi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. cumanensis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
|Identification information:||60-69 cm. Medium-sized, black-and-white cracid. Large white lower wing-covert patch. White spots on upper wing-coverts. White crown, nape and forehead. White feathers also surround the eye. Colour of dewlap and bare facial skin varies between white and cobalt blue. White to very pale blue bill with a black tip. Reddish legs. Voice Call is a long series of feeble, slurred whistles. Also claps and whirs wings loudly. Hints Concentrates at fruiting trees and salt licks.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Khwaja, N., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Pipile cumanensis has a wide range in northern South America. It is still locally abundant in Suriname and in Guyana (Restall et al. 2006), but in French Guiana it is rare and very local. Its abundance is described as local in Colombia and Amazonas, Venezuela. In Ecuador the taxon was estimated to occur at densities of over 20 birds/km2 in its preferred habitat in 1994 (del Hoyo et al. 1994), but is now considered uncommon (Restall et al. 2006). In Peru, it remains common in the south, but is rare and in some danger of local extinction in the north-east. The range reaches northern Bolivia, while in Brazil the taxon is common in north Roraima, but it is scarce around cities (Tefé, Manaus) and there have been no recent records from the state of Amapá.|
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common in Ecuador to rare in French Guiana and north-eastern Peru (del Hoyo et al. 1994).|
Trend Justification: This species is suspected to lose 7.1-7.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (17 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Despite the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The species occurs in both terra firme (without flooding) and várzea (seasonally flooded) tropical rainforest types, as well as semi-deciduous forest, gallery forest and cerrado (dry savanna woodland). It reaches coastal lowlands in the north of its range. A strong preference is noted for strips of forest within 100 m of rivers, both in Amazonia and French Guiana. It has been recorded up to 500 m in Colombia, 1,000 m in Venezuela and over 2,000 m in Bolivia; the latter is likely to refer to birds searching for fruiting trees. Palm fruits are its preferred food, and it is also known to feed on Tababuia flowers, figs and snails. The species generally breeds during the rainy season, starting in August and September in Peru, with eggs having been found in February and May in Colombia. Its nest is built of twigs in dense canopy vegetation (del Hoyo et al. 1994).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||5.7|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2016. Pipile cumanensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727323A94946598.Downloaded on 18 January 2018.|
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