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Picoides tridactylus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Piciformes Picidae

Scientific Name: Picoides tridactylus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Three-toed Woodpecker
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes:

Picoides tridactylus and P. funebris (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. tridactylus following AOU (2003). P. tridactylus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously split into P. tridactylus and P. dorsalis following AOU (2003), and prior to that all three taxa were lumped as P. tridactylus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J
Justification:
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend is not known, but the population is not believed to be decreasing sufficiently rapidly to approach the thresholds under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Countries occurrence:
Native:
Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Kyrgyzstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Mongolia; Montenegro; Norway; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United States
Vagrant:
Denmark; Hungary
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:67000000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:NoLower elevation limit (metres):360
Upper elevation limit (metres):2700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The European population is estimated at 598,000-1,450,000 pairs, which equates to 1,200,000-2,900,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 6,000,000-14,500,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend Justification:  Although declines occurred in parts of its European range from 1970-2000, it has been stable across much of its European range during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004), although the trend between 2000 and 2012 in Europe is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:6000000-14999999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species inhabits mature conifer forests, particularly spruce Picea spp., and is somewhat irruptive, being found commonly where disturbance such as fire has caused local outbreaks of insects (Winkler et al. 1995).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Large-scale commercial logging and modern forestry management practices, including fire suppression and removal of dead or insect-infested trees, have led to declines. It is susceptible to habitat loss, forest degradation and fragmentation. Its relatively small population sizes, dependence on snags, and preference for burnt forest and large stands of old-growth conifers make it vulnerable to forestry practices and its survival in managed forests is not guaranteed. Modern intensive forestry methods, including clear-cutting, fire suppression, removal of dead trees and pesticide use threaten the species (Winkler and Christie 2002).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. EU Birds Directive Annex I. There are no known current conservation measures for this species within its European range.

Conservation Actions Proposed
The following information refers to the species's European range only: Intensive management of favoured habitats, such as old spruce- or fir-dominated forest with abundant dead wood in mountains or damp lowlands of this species should be avoided. Protected areas should cover at least 50 ha, in order to sustain a single pair. Within intensively managed mature forests, dying or dead trees should be left. If there is insufficient dead wood then cutting single mature trees to around 10 m and leaving to decay, may provide suitable nest sites (Tucker and Heath 1994).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Picoides tridactylus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22727137A87304270. . Downloaded on 10 December 2016.
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