Alcedo peninsulae 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Alcedo peninsulae Laubmann, 1941
Common Name(s):
English Malay Blue-banded Kingfisher
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes:

Alcedo euryzona and A. peninsulae (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as A. euryzona following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification information: 20 cm. Medium-sized river kingfisher. Has dark blackish upperparts with silvery-azure streak from mantle to rump. Long, white neck-flash with rufous tip. White throat, rest of underparts in male whitish with bold blue band across chest. Female with rich orange underparts, lacking breast-band. Similar spp. A. euryzona has a solid blue breast band in both sexesCommon Kingfisher A. atthis smaller, greenish-blue above, lacking breast-band. Voice High-pitched squeaks in flight, harsher than A. atthis.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Aik, Y., Davison, G., Cox, B., van Balen, B. & Ong, T.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Martin, R & Symes, A.
This newly-split kingfisher is largely restricted to rivers in lowland forest and, as such, is suspected to be undergoing a moderately rapid and continuing population decline as a result of significant losses in the extent of this habitat throughout its range. It is therefore classified as Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Alcedo peninsulae ranges from southern Myanmar (Tenasserim), through peninsular Thailand to Malaysia (including Sabah and Sarawak on Borneo), Brunei, Kalimantan, and Sumatra, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). It is generally thinly distributed, being locally fairly common in Peninsular Malaysia and on Borneo, rare in Myanmar, and uncommon in Thailand and Sumatra. It may be under-recorded owing to its shy behaviour and often remote habitat (B. van Balen in litt. 2012).

Countries occurrence:
Brunei Darussalam; Indonesia; Malaysia; Myanmar; Thailand
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4040000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Number of Locations:11-100Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):850
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals.

Trend Justification:  Rates of forest loss in Southeast Asia have been rapid and are continuing, hence the population is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly as a result.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000-19999Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:Yes
No. of subpopulations:2-100Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:It is generally sedentary on rocky or slow-flowing streams and larger rivers running through forest (usually humid evergreen, but also back-mangroves and mixed dipterocarp-dominated forest) and has been found up to 100 m from riversides in forest (Fry and Fry 1999). It is most commonly encountered in the lowlands, but ascends locally to 850 m in peninsular Malaysia and to at least 1,250 m in Borneo (Fry and Fry 1999). It is predominantly piscivorous, also consuming crustaceans, insects and small reptiles (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). Breeding has been recorded between January-March and June (del Hoyo et al. 2001).

Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Huge areas of lowland forest were removed from the range of this species during the 20th century. For example, rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, owing to a variety of factors, including the escalation of illegal logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). A similar scenario (or indeed worse in the case of Thailand) faces all other range states and islands. Its occupation of hill streams, however, provides some hope that it will survive in this relatively secure habitat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded within various protected areas within its range, including Way Kambas National Park, Sumatra, Gunung Palung and Kutai National Parks, Kalimantan, Similajau National Park, Sarawak, Endau-Rompin and Taman Negara National Parks, Malaysia (B. Cox in litt. 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Address the species as a key target during surveys, and research its range and ecological requirements, perhaps targeting the species through mist-netting above forest streams (B. van Balen in litt. 2012). Formulate a management strategy for this species and a suite of other Sundaic birds largely reliant on lowland forest. Lobby for effective management of existing protected areas in the Sundaic region and for the expansion of the protected area network.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Alcedo peninsulae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22726979A94937697. . Downloaded on 14 December 2017.
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