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Todiramphus cinnamominus 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Coraciiformes Alcedinidae

Scientific Name: Todiramphus cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821)
Common Name(s):
English Guam Kingfisher, Micronesian Kingfisher
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes:

Todiramphus cinnamominus, T. pelewensis and T. reichenbachii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as T. cinnamominus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Identification information: 20 cm. A distinctive small kingfisher with a rich rufous top of the head, underparts and hindcollar, greenish-black mask extending as a thin band around the hindneck and shining blue-green mantle, wings and tail. Bill is black. The female has a white belly, sharply demarcated from the rufous on the breast. Similar species. T. pelewensis and T. reichenbachii have clean white underparts.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Shannon, P., Buchholz, P. & Kesler, D.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Martin, R, Symes, A., Taylor, J., North, A.
Justification:
This newly-split kingfisher was endemic to the island of Guam, but following predation by invasive snakes it became Extinct in the Wild in 1986 when the last remaining wild birds were taken into captivity for captive breeding.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Todiramphus cinnamominus occurred on Guam (to U.S.A.),  but became extinct in the wild in 1986 as a result of predation from the introduced tree snake Boiga irregularis (del Hoyo et al. 2001). What were believed to be the last 29 individuals were caught and taken into captivity in 1986; this captive population now numbers 124 individuals spread around various facilities in the U.S.A (D. Kesler in litt. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Regionally extinct:
Guam
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Extinct in the wild: the last 29 known wild birds were taken into captivity in 1986.
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:0Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species was previously found in a fairly wide variety of habitats throughout the island of Guam, including the edges of mangroves, wooded coastal lowlands, coconut palms and mixed upland forest and also large gardens with plenty of timber (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001, Kesler in litt. 2013). The breeding season was between December and July, with the nest excavated into a rotten tree (Fry and Fry 1999).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):4.8
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Its decline and extinction in the wild is the result of predation by the introduced brown tree snake Boiga irregularis (Fritts and Rodda 1998). Predation by feral cats may have represented an additional threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation and research actions underway
In 2013 the captive population numbered 124 individuals spread around various facilities in the U.S.A (D. Kesler in litt. 2013). The captive population is considered to be close to or at capacity for the facilities currently holding birds, and there is a need for an appropriate reintroduction site to be identified (Laws and Kesler 2012, Kesler in litt. 2013), with a bayesian modelling approach being used to identify islands that may be suitable for translocation (Laws and Kesler 2012).

Conservation and research actions proposed
Continue the captive-breeding programme. Control B. irregularis and feral cats F. catus on Guam so that there is the potential for reintroductions to take place in the future. Identify one or more suitable reintroduction or translocation sites.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Todiramphus cinnamominus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22725862A94903871. . Downloaded on 19 November 2017.
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