Carpococcyx viridis 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Cuculiformes Cuculidae

Scientific Name: Carpococcyx viridis
Species Authority: Salvadori, 1879
Common Name(s):
English Sumatran Ground-cuckoo, Sumatran Ground Cuckoo
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International.
Taxonomic Notes: Carpococcyx radiceus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into C. radiatus and C. viridis following Collar and Long (1995), who corrected the name radiceus to radiatus.

Identification information: 55 cm. Large, terrestrial, forest-dwelling cuckoo. Long, full tail. Sturdy green legs and bill. Black crown, shading to green on hind crown. Dull green mantle, upper back, neck sides, wing-coverts and secondaries. Brown lower back with broad greenish-brown bars. Glossy greenish-black wings and tail. Dull green lower throat and upper breast, rest of underparts cinnamon-buff, more rufous on flanks. Green, lilac and blue bare skin around eye. Voice Repeated low whistles (falling then rising in tone: WE-ow-WE), plus issued in a rising series (we-ow-we, we-ow-we, we-ow-we, we-ow-we; each phrase slightly higher than last).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Brickle, N., Linkie, M. & Bishop, K.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.
This poorly known terrestrial forest bird is thought to have an extremely small and declining population, and as such it qualifies as Critically Endangered, although further information might warrant a reassessment of its status.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2010 Critically Endangered (CR)
2009 Critically Endangered (CR)
2008 Critically Endangered (CR)
2004 Critically Endangered (CR)
2000 Critically Endangered (CR)
1994 Not Recognized (NR)
1988 Not Recognized (NR)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is endemic to the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, where it is only known from eight specimens and a recent series of sightings, the majority of which have come from the Barisan Mountains in the southern half of the island (BirdLife International 2001). Unrecorded since 1916, an individual was trapped and photographed in November 1997 at Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BBS) (at 500 m) (Zetra et al. 2002). Subsequent records comprise an unconfirmed sighting in 2000 in the Bukit Rimbang-Baling Wildlife Sanctuary from an area of hilly, open secondary forest with dense undergrowth at 700m (Zetra et al. 2002), a bird photographed by a camera-trap near Kerinci Seblat National Park in 2006 (Anon 2006, Dinata et al. 2008) and a bird caught and brought to conservationists in BBS in 2007 (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, 2008, 2010). Up to five birds have since been seen and heard in the wild near the site of the original trapped bird in BBS; at Way Titias, near Liwa, in central BBS, and another heard calling, and reported by hunters, in an area north of BBS (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, 2008, 2010). Very little is known about its population status. Its close relative, the Bornean Ground-cuckoo C. radiatus, is unobtrusive, which may partly account for the lack of records. However, it seems likely that it is rare and locally distributed.

Countries occurrence:
Indonesia (Sumatera)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 25300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 300
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population is estimated to number 50-249 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 75-374 individuals in total, rounded here to 70-400 individuals.

Trend Justification:  The population is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat loss and hunting pressure, although the likely rate of decline has not been estimated.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 50-249 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 90-94

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Information noted on specimen labels reveals that it inhabits foothill and lower montane forest, with records from 300-1,400 m. All recent records are from 800-1,000 m (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, 2008, 2010). Brief habitat descriptions from collecting localities and the site of the recent sightings indicate that it occurs in primary or little-disturbed forest (Anon 2006). All known sites appear to have a relatively dense understorey. It is a ground-dweller, apparently feeding on invertebrates, reptiles and small mammals on the forest floor (based on the range of prey captured and eaten by a captive bird in a semi-wild enclosure) (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, 2008, 2010). Other than this, there is no information on its ecology and behaviour.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 4.2
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Deforestation has been extensive on Sumatra and this is probably the main threat. At least two-thirds to four-fifths of original lowland forest cover and at least one-third of montane forest have been lost, primarily to agricultural encroachment by shifting cultivators, which is currently affecting large areas of lower montane forest, even within protected areas. At the type locality, Gunung Singgalang, forest had been cleared up to 1,800-1,900 m as early as 1917. In addition, being a ground-forager, it is possibly susceptible to bycatch through hunting by use of snares: a recent record was obtained when a bird was captured by a hunter, almost certainly in a snare set for Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus (N. Brickle in litt. 2007, 2008, 2010).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
There are 20 protected areas in the Barisan Mountains, some of which lie within the current known range of this species. The recent records come from Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park and near Kerinci Seblat National Park. Also, one specimen was collected from within, or close to Kerinci Seblat National Park. Survey effort is likely to increase following the recent recording of its call: knowledge of ground-cuckoo calls has facilitated study of two other Asian species in the past. Efforts to protect habitat and promote tourism are being developed.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Choose potential survey areas by identifying remaining habitat tracts in the Barisan Mountains, particularly near historical localities, and conducting village interviews. Conduct extensive surveys (utilising recent recordings of the species's call) to establish its true range, current distribution and population, and assess its habitat requirements, threats and conservation needs. Following surveys, review whether key populations are adequately represented within the existing protected-area network, and if not, advocate establishment of further strategic protected areas. Afford the species full protection under Indonesian law.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Carpococcyx viridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22724459A37994785. . Downloaded on 26 May 2016.
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