|Scientific Name:||Passerina ciris|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Butcher, G., Pashley, D., Rosenberg, K. & Wells, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Bird, J., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Stattersfield, A.|
This species has declined over the long term and apparently continues to do so at a moderately rapid rate. It is therefore considered to be Near Threatened.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Passerina ciris occurs in two geographically disjunct populations: a western population breeding from northern Mexico to northern Texas, USA, and wintering in south-west Mexico; and an eastern population breeding along the Atlantic coast from North Carolina to Florida (USA) and wintering in southern Florida and the Caribbean (Lowther et al. 1999). The global population is estimated to be 3.6 million birds (Rich et al. 2003). Populations have declined since the mid-1960s and the species has been extirpated from parts of its range in south-west and east USA and north-east Mexico (Lowther et al. 1999, Sauer et al. 2003, NAS 2004, USFWS 2004). Breeding Bird Survey data from the continental USA (and for five years from north-east Mexico) indicates that the population has declined by 55% over the last 30 years (Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002, Rich et al. 2003), with the steepest declines in the eastern population.|
Native:Bahamas; Belize; Costa Rica; Cuba; El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; United States
Vagrant:Cayman Islands; Jamaica
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1210000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1700|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. (2004).
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The western population breeds in scrub-brush habitat that remains largely intact, and the eastern population inhabits coastal plain agricultural land (Lowther et al. 1999).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Unknown|
|Generation Length (years):||4.4|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Loss and intensification of habitat through urban development, road building and agricultural intensification, and capture for the cagebird trade are the primary threats (Lowther et al. 1999, Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002, Phillips Lynch 2004), with part of the declines also being attributed to brood-parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbird. Trapping and sale in local markets occurs in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, and overseas to international markets in Europe, South America and Asia (Ramos 1982, Iñigo-Elias 1986, Iñigo-Elias et al. 2002).|
Conservation Actions Underway
Tightly control any ongoing trade in the species. Develop an appropriate management strategy to reverse population declines. Develop a comprehensive conservation strategy including adaptive harvesting for populations in the Caribbean and Latin America (Iñigo-Elias 2006).
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Passerina ciris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22723957A39975520. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T22723957A39975520.en . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.|
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