Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Cardinalidae

Scientific Name: Periporphyrus erythromelas
Species Authority: (Gmelin, 1789)
Common Name(s):
English Red-and-black Grosbeak
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 20.5cm, 48g (n=1 male). Head, chin and throat black. Male with bright red nape collar and underparts, deep reddish upperparts. Female greenish-yellow, brightest on nape and underparts including vent. Massive dark bill with paler base of the lower mandible. Similar spp. Female may be confused with Yellow-green Grosbeak Caryothraustes canadensis but in that species the black is restricted to the foreface and does not extend on to the crown or ear coverts. Voice Series of exceptionally sweet rising and falling phrases consisting of variations on 2-3 standard phrases; delivered slowly and hesitantly. Call a sharp and high-pitched "spink".

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2013-11-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its susceptibility to fragmentation and disturbance, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.

Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Near Threatened (NT)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Extreme E Venezuela, N & C Guyana, Suriname (except SW), French Guiana and Brazil from Amapá south to E Pará (del Hoyo et al 2011) and west across S. Amazonian Brazil into the Madeira drainage (A. Lees in litt. 2011).
Countries occurrence:
Brazil; French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 873000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1000
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  This species is suspected to lose 26.6-29.1% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (12 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by a rate approaching 30% over three generations.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Found in the lower levels of pristine mature lowland humid forest, terre firme, and seasonally flooded forest. Occasionally into subcanopy but does not appear to join mixed-species flocks. Recorded from sea level to 1000m. Occurs at low density and does not appear to adapt to human habitat modifications, though the species has been recorded in selectively logged forest (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Appar
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 4.1
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Projected deforestation is the primary threat affecting this species (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It requires near pristine forest (del Hoyo et al. 1992) and so is especially sensitive to fragmentation and disturbance, particularly as it is already rare and occurs at low densities. Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2013. Periporphyrus erythromelas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T22723843A50432680. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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