Camarhynchus pallidus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Emberizidae

Scientific Name: Camarhynchus pallidus
Species Authority: (Sclater & Salvin, 1870)
Common Name(s):
English Woodpecker Finch
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 15 cm medium-large Darwins's finch. Bill long, apparently twice as long as base depth. Strong legs and large feet, tail short and weak. Male is sandy brown, unstreaked and rather pale with sandy brown face and pale area above and below eye. Iris dark and bill black during breeding, lower mandible paler at other times. Female resembles male in plumage however bill dull orange, not becoming black during breeding. Juvenile resembles female (Jaramillo and Christie 2013). Voice Song loud e.g. "chup-tupupupu chup-tupupupu" or "cht-trrr cht-trrr" or "chik-tip-tip-tip-tip chik-tip-tip-tip-tip". Calls include nasal "phew" (Jaramillo and Christie 2013).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2bc+3bc+4bc; B1ab(v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2015
Date Assessed: 2015-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Grant , P. & Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ashpole, J, Butchart, S. & Ekstrom, J.
This species is thought to have declined by more than 30% over the past three generations and this decline is projected to continue into the future. It also has a small range and is found at a limited number of locations. It is therefore evaluated as Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2012 Least Concern (LC)
2009 Least Concern (LC)
2008 Least Concern (LC)
2004 Least Concern (LC)
2000 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1994 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
1988 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found only on the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). It is found on the islands of Fernandina, Isabela, Santiago, Pinzón, Santa Cruz, and San Cristóbal. Its status on Fernandina and Pinzón is uncertain (P. Grant in litt. 2013).
Countries occurrence:
Ecuador (Galápagos)
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 7400
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 6
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1700
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996). The population size on Santa Cruz in 2008 (largely confined to higher altitudes) was estimated at c. 12,000 singing males (Dvorak et al. 2012).

Trend Justification:  The population had been suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. However a recent study by Dvorak et al. (2012) used quantitative census data to describe the distribution and abundance of the land birds of Santa Cruz, the second largest island in the Galápagos archipelago. The results revealed that the species had declined significantly between 1997 and 2010, with declines of >65% in the dry zone, >20% in Scalesia forest and >50% in the agricultural zone. Changes in insect abundance or availability could be driving the decline, although other factors such as habitat alteration and introduced species may also be influencing declines (Dvorak et al, 2012). No census data currently exists for the islands of Isabela and Santiago but given the level of habitat destruction and degradation by introduced herbivores on those islands (Henderson and Dawson 2009), similar declines are suspected.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: Unknown Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The species uses a variety of  habitats and elevations, especially montane evergreen forest (Jaramillo and Christie 2013). It is common in Scalesia evergreen forest (dominated by treelike Scalesia pedunculata) and the Cinchona zone (dominated by Cinchona pubescens) on Santa Cruz (Dvorak et al. 2012). It feeds on arthropods, including wood-boring beetle larvae (Jaramillo and Christie 2013). Ecologically fills the role of a woodpecker or nuthatch and uses tools, such as sticks, to extract larvae from timber.
Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Unknown
Generation Length (years): 3.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Habitat loss owing to human activities is thought to be a major threat. Endemic Scalesia forest on Santa Cruz had decreased to 1-2% of its original size by 2009 and has been invaded by introduced tree species (Dvorak et al. 2012). Spraying with herbicides to control these invasive plants may have reduced invertebrate abundance. Introduced herbivores are also thought to have had a negative impact on the species, causing significant damage to native vegetation. The species is known to be susceptible to the parasitic fly Philornis downsi and highly susceptible to avian pox (Dvorak et al. 2012). Droughts may have a negative impact on the species (Dvorak et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation and Research Actions Underway
The species is found within the Galápagos National Park.

Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Implement a full-scale monitoring programme for birds on the Galápagos islands in order to assess the impact of threats including diseases and habitat change and the effects of restoration (Dvorak et al. 2012). Continue research into Philornis downsi and implement management to limit its negative impact on Woodpecker Finch. Control introduced species. Protect remaining suitable habitat. Ensure management to control invasive plants does not impact negatively on the species.

Citation: BirdLife International. 2015. Camarhynchus pallidus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22723783A83761406. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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