|Scientific Name:||Oryzoborus maximiliani|
|Species Authority:||Cabanis, 1851|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||De Luca, A., Olmos, F., Rheindt, F., Salaman, P. & Costa, F.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J. & Ashpole, J|
This species was uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable in 2013 following evidence that it is declining rapidly, owing to intensive trapping and the loss and degradation of its habitats. If further evidence suggests that the decline is more rapid than currently thought, the species may qualify for uplisting again in the near future.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
Oryzoborus maximiliani has a very disjunct range on the Pacific slope It if found in northern Bolivia (one locality), eastern Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, lower Amazonian Brazil and eastern and southern Brazil. It is very local and rare throughout its range (Restall et al. 2006), but can be common in suitable habitats, and has been noted to be fairly common in savannas near Trinidad in Beni department, Bolivia (F. Rheindt in litt. 2012).
Native:Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1530000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1100|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).
Trend Justification: This species is suspected to be experiencing a rapid population decline, as it has become rare in many parts of its range and is known to suffer high levels of persecution for the cage-bird trade, as well as habitat loss and degradation.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is very local and patchily distributed. It occurs in riparian thickets, freshwater marshes and second-growth scrub to 1,100 m (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Stotz et al. 1996). At least in Colombia, it can be locally very common, where it also frequents rice plantations (Hilty and Brown 1986). It has been noted to be fairly common in savanna habitat in Bolivia, including degraded areas by roads, as well as abandoned urban property (F. Rheindt in litt. 2012).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||The principal threat is the depletion of local populations by cage-bird trappers (Ridgely and Tudor 1989, Olmos 1993, Stotz et al. 1996), and this activity has caused it to vanish from most of its former range in Brazil. In fact, several long-term Brazilian ornithologists have failed to find this species in the wild since c. 2002, and its remaining wild population must be very small. The significant captive population in Brazil may be used for future reintroductions but the chances of that happening in the short-term are slim because the birds are very valuable, attaining high market prices. Habitat loss and degradation, as a result of conversion to agriculture and plantations, is also likely to contribute to declines.|
Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded in Emas National Park, Brazil (A. Monteiro per F. Olmos in litt. 2004, A. de Luca in litt. 2010).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct studies to determine the taxonomic status of the distinct subspecies. Repeat surveys of known sites to determine rates of population decline. Monitor the abundance of this species in the wild bird trade. Regulate the capture of the species as a cage-bird.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Oryzoborus maximiliani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22723537A84684048. . Downloaded on 27 November 2015.|
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