Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Passeriformes Emberizidae

Scientific Name: Oreothraupis arremonops
Species Authority: (Sclater, 1855)
Common Name(s):
English Tanager Finch, Tanager-finch
Taxonomic Source(s): SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Identification information: 20 cm. Handsome, large, finch-like bird with boldly striped head. Black head and upper throat, with broad silver-grey coronal stripe and eye-stripe reaching to nape. Ferruginous body, brighter on breast. Grey belly and centre of lower breast. Blackish tail. Juvenile duller, with faint head pattern, brownish body with ferruginous back, black wings and tail. Voice Song is high-pitched series of sharp, thin tsip notes. Foraging call sharp tsip and thinner sink. Soft frog-like whistle wert.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2012-05-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): Gregory, M., Salaman, P. & Echeverry-Galvis, M.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it is known from few locations in a small range, where there is continuing habitat loss and degradation (Collar et al. 1992).

Previously published Red List assessments:
2008 Vulnerable (VU)
2004 Vulnerable (VU)
2000 Vulnerable (VU)
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (VU)
1988 Threatened (T)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Oreothraupis arremonops has a patchy distribution on the Pacific slope of the West Andes of Colombia (Antioquia, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Nariño, Risaralda [Echeverry-Galvis and Córdoba-Córdoba 2007]) and north-west Ecuador (Pichincha and Imbabura). In Ecuador, there are modern records from the Tandayapa area, Pichincha, and Cotacachi-Cayapas National Park, Imbabura (M. S. Gregory in litt. 2001), Los Cedros Protected Forest and Mindo (Ridgely and Greenfield 2006, Freile and Santander 2005). The population in Munchique National Park, Cauca, is estimated to number 1,000 mature individuals, probably the global stronghold (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Its apparent rarity may in part result from the inaccessibility of its very wet, often steep-sloped environment (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

Countries occurrence:
Colombia; Ecuador
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 13300
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 6-10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 1200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The species is described as very rare and local. Its population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend Justification:  A slow and on-going population decline is suspected owing to rates of habitat loss.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 6000-15000 Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No
No. of subpopulations: 2-100 Continuing decline in subpopulations: Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No
No. of individuals in largest subpopulation: 1-89

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This poorly-known species inhabits thick undergrowth in primary humid forest (mostly dense, wet, mossy cloud-forest) between 1,200 and 2,800 m altitude. In Cauca, it is most frequently observed between 2,300 and 2,500 m. It has been observed in areas with abundant Clusia spp., Persea sp. and Weinmannia pubescens (Renjifo et al. 2002, Echeverry-Galvis and Córdoba-Córdoba 2007), as well as areas with Palicourea, Asplundia, Besleria, and Allopectus (J. P. López-O per M. A. Echeverry-Galvis in litt. 2012). It forages mainly in dense understory in groups of no more than six individuals (M. A. Echeverry-Galvis in litt. 2012). Juveniles with adults have been seen in June in Cauca, August in Risaralda (Echeverry-Galvis and Cordoba-Cordoba 2007), and November and December in Pichincha (Lowen et al. 2000, Lowen and Benitez undated), where a nest with one egg has been found (also in November) (Greeney et al. 1998). The nest-site was in fairly disturbed forest (Greeney et al. 1998).

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 3.8
Movement patterns: Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Unplanned colonisation following the completion of roads, notably the Cali-Buenaventura and Pasto-Tumaco highways, and extensive logging concessions have been the primary causes of habitat loss (Salaman 1994, Wege and Long 1995, Salaman and Stiles 1996). Deforestation rates are accelerating within its range, primarily because of logging, human settlement, cattle-grazing, coca cultivation and gold mining (Dinerstein et al. 1995, Wege and Long 1995, Salaman and Stiles 1996). Montane forests are less threatened than those in the lowland Chocó region, but habitat loss is occurring, particularly below 2,000 m altitude (Dinerstein et al. 1995, Wege and Long 1995, Salaman and Stiles 1996). Munchique is affected by human settlement, and part of the cloud-forest was illegally burnt during exceptionally dry weather in 1997, to make the land grazeable, but this is apparently only rarely a threat (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Conservation Actions Underway
As well as Munchique and Cotacachi-Cayapas, it occurs in Farallones de Cali and Tatama (M. A. Echeverry-Galvis in litt. 2012) national parks, and Tambito and La Planada Nature Reserves, Colombia, and Mindo-Nambillo Protection Forest, Ecuador (Wege and Long 1995).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey poorly-known cloud-forests, notably in Farallones de Cali National Park (Wege and Long 1995, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Study its ecological requirements, population density and conservation status (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Lowen et al. 2000, M. S. Gregory in litt. 2001). Fund, support and enforce better protection of national parks, especially Munchique (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999), and, in tandem, compensation of local people. Establish a monitoring program for the population in Risaralda, involving community based groups interested in bird conservation (Echeverry-Galvis & Cordoba-Cordoba 2007). Study basic life-history in Munchique and Tatama, including juvenile dispersal, diet, and breeding season (M. A. Echeverry-Galvis in litt. 2012).

Citation: BirdLife International. 2012. Oreothraupis arremonops. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22723024A38179156. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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