|Scientific Name:||Conirostrum bicolor|
|Species Authority:||(Vieillot, 1809)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies: C. b. bicolor (Vieillot, 1809) associated with coastal habitats especially mangroves; and C. b. minus (Hellmayr, 1935) found in younger successional stages of Amazonian river islands. May consistute two separate taxa.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A.|
Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.
C. b. bicolor Coastal from N Colombia E along coast, including Margareta Island and Trinidad, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname and locally along the Brazil coast to Sao Paulo. Also locally along the Rio Branco in Brazil
C. b. minus in shrubby younger successional stages of vegetation on river islands and riverbanks of the River Amazon, and a few major tributaries in NE Peru, SE Colombia and Brazil, possibly to the mouth of the Amazon.
Native:Brazil; Colombia; Ecuador; French Guiana; Guyana; Peru; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
C. b. bicolor is closely associated with mangroves even if occasionally seen in adjacent low flooded forest. Occurs in pairs or small family parties and not associated with mixed-species flocks. May be competitively excluded by or exclude the resident individuals of Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia) in mangroves, apparently the two species do not occur together. Typically in mid to upper levels of foliage foraging for small arthropods amongst leaf clusters. Breeds between February and May in N Colombia. The nest is a deep cup of grass mixed with feathers 0.3-4m up in mangrove, clutch of 2 eggs. In Trinidad often parasitized by Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonariensis.
C. b. minus gleans for small arthropods in foliage on river islands and may investigate damaged Cecropia leaves.
|Major Threat(s):||Projected deforestation is the primary threat affecting this species (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011); destruction of mangrove outside of protected areas is the most significant threat for C. b. bicolor, whereas the rather ephemeral river island habitat of C. b. minus may be at relatively low risk of significant habitat destruction. Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).|
Conservation Actions Underway
In Colombia C. b. bicolor occurs in Salamanca National Park and probably Corales del Rosario National Park. In Venezuela the species occurs in Morrocoy National Park and in Suriname at Wia-Wia and Galibi National Parks.
Conservation Actions ProposedExpand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Conirostrum bicolor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 March 2015.|
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