||Setophaga angelae Kepler & Parkes, 1972
||Elfin Woods Warbler, Elfin-woods Warbler
||Reinita de bosque enano
Dendroica angelae Kepler & Parkes, 1972
||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Setophaga angelae (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Dendroica following AOU (1998 & supplements); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).
||12.5 cm. A black-and-white warbler. Similar spp. Wintering Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia, but distinguished by lack of broad white crown-stripe, and behaviour: D. angelae gleans from leaves and twigs whereas M. varia creeps along trunks and limbs of trees. Voice Song is a series of short, rapid notes ending with slightly lower series of double notes. Contact call similar to first part of song. Seldom gives short, metallic chip. Hints Hyperactive, accompanies mixed flocks.
|Red List Category & Criteria:
||Rodriguez, R., Anadón, V., Delannoy, C. & Colón-Merced, R.
||Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D. & Wheatley, H.
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small range within the species is thought to be declining as a result of habitat loss and degradation.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
- 2016 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2012 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2008 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2004 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 2000 – Vulnerable (VU)
- 1994 – Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
- 1988 – Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
|Range Description:||Setophaga angelae was only discovered in 1968 and is endemic to Puerto Rico (to USA) (Raffaele 1983). It was formerly considered to occur at four disjunct localities: in the east, the Sierra de Luquillo (El Yunque National Forest/Bosque Nacional del Caribe) and the Sierra de Cayey (Carite State Forest) and, in the west, the Cordillera Central (Maricao and Toro Negro Commonwealth Forests), but its existence at some of these sites has been questioned and it is now thought to be restricted to two widely separated locations: the Sierra de Luquillo and the Maricao State Forest and adjacent private lands (Anadon-Irizarry 2006, Delannoy 2006; V. Amadon in litt. 2016, USFWS 2016). In optimal habitat it can be locally common, and although the population was previously thought to be no more than c.300 pairs (Curson et al. 1994), more accurate counts put the population at c.2,700 individuals.|
|♦ Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No||♦ Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||1200|
|♦ Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown||♦ Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|♦ Number of Locations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in number of locations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No||♦ Lower elevation limit (metres):||170|
|♦ Upper elevation limit (metres):||1030|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population has been estimated to number at least 1,800 mature individuals, based on censuses conducted using playback methods. This is roughly equivalent to at least 2,700 individuals in total.|
Surveys by Arendt et al. (2013) in the El Yunque National Forest found a population density of 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and 0.2 individuals/ha in palo colarado forest in 2006. This protected area is estimated to contain 368 ha of elfin woodland and 3,441 ha of palo colorado forest (USFWS 2016). Using the above population densities and habitat areas, the population in the El Yunque National Forest is estimated to number c.700 individuals.
Based on habitat-specific population densities found by Gonzales (2008) and the estimated areas of each habitat within the Maricao forest (USFWS 2016), the population in the Maricao forest is estimated at c.2,000 individuals.
The population is estimated as 2,700 individuals, which equates to 1800 mature individuals.
Trend Justification: The species is may have declined in recent years owing to habitat degradation. A study by Arendt et al. (2013) at El Yunque National Forest found a decline from 0.2 to 0.02 individuals/ha in elfin woodland and a decline from 1 to 0.2 individuals/ha in palo colarado forest between 1989 and 2006 which may equate to a decline of 10-25% over 3 generations or 10 years. There is no indication that the population in Maricao Forest and adjacent land has declined, although habitat loss in the adjacent land is ongoing.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|♦ Number of mature individuals:||1800||♦ Continuing decline of mature individuals:||Yes|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations:||No||♦ Population severely fragmented:||Yes|
|♦ No. of subpopulations:||2||♦ Continuing decline in subpopulations:||No|
|♦ Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:||No||♦ All individuals in one subpopulation:||No|
|♦ No. of individuals in largest subpopulation:||1-89|