|Scientific Name:||Vermivora chrysoptera|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor(s):||Buehler, D., Canterbury, R., Confer, J., Rosenberg, K. & Wells, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Bird, J., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J|
This species has declined rapidly in southern parts of its breeding range in recent years. Northern populations faired better but overall moderately rapid declines have been recorded. Therefore, it qualifies as Near Threatened, but if declines continue to worsen in the north of its breeding range it may warrant uplisting to Vulnerable in the future.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Vermivora chrysoptera breeds from southern Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and northern New York, southern Vermont and eastern Massachusetts, USA, south through the eastern USA to Tennessee, Georgia and South Carolina (AOU 1983, Buehler et al. 2007). Birds winter from the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico and Belize) and Guatemala, south through El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama to northern and eastern Colombia and northern Venezuela (AOU 1983); wintering birds are occasionally recorded from the Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Puerto Rico (Bond 1979). Although it had increased and expanded its distribution for more than a century, evidence from the North American Breeding Birds Survey suggests that it is declining in its southern range, from Georgia to New England (where decline has been particularly severe) (D. A. Buehler, R. A. Canterbury and J. L. Confer in litt. 2003, Buehler et al. 2007). It increased over the last c.30 years in the northern part of its breeding range (Curson et al 1994, D. A. Buehler, R. A. Canterbury and J. L. Confer in litt. 2003), although recently declines have been recorded (Buehler et al. 2003). Estimates suggest a current population of c.210,000 birds (Rosenberg and Blancher 2003, Rich et al. 2004).|
Native:Belize; Canada; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Guatemala; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
Vagrant:Barbados; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Curaçao; French Polynesia; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Trinidad and Tobago; United Kingdom
|Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):||No|
|Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:||943000|
|Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):||No|
|Continuing decline in number of locations:||Unknown|
|Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:||No|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||2000|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. PIF North American Landbirds Conservation Plan (2004).
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-63.8% decline over 40 years, equating to a -22.4% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Declines have been particularly marked over the past 15 years (Buehler et al. 2007).
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Breeds in open deciduous woodland, secondary growth, brushy pastures and bogs (AOU 1983), apparently favouring a particular stage in woodland succession (Curson et al 1994). When the habitat passes this stage, birds move on (Curson et al 1994). All kinds of woodland and scrub are used during migration, and birds generally winter in secondary growth forest or forest edge with a good understorey (Curson et al 1994). Most records come from below 2,000 m, and right down to sea-level (Curson et al 1994). The well-hidden nest is usually on or close to the ground, and breeding takes place in May and June (Curson et al 1994).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.8|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Major Threat(s):||Local declines correlate with advancing succession and reforestation, and the invasive range expansion of Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus (Confer 1992). Other possible causes of population declines are loss of wintering habitat (especially forest edge and open woodland) through agricultural expansion and clearance for plantations, nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater and hybridisation with V. pinus (Confer 1992).|
Conservation Actions Underway
None are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue monitoring population trends. Identify the principal threats and develop management actions to remedy them. Management to maintain or create suitable habitat; a forty-year cycle of burning 10-20 ha units of habitat has been proposed. Investigate the control and removal of nest parasite (Brown-headed Cowbird) populations.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Vermivora chrysoptera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22721618A39860643. . Downloaded on 30 November 2015.|
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