|Scientific Name:||Plectrophenax nivalis|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.|
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Native:Austria; Bahamas; Belarus; Belgium; Bermuda; Bulgaria; Canada; China; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Faroe Islands; Finland; France; Germany; Greenland; Hungary; Iceland; Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Korea, Republic of; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Pierre and Miquelon; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain (Canary Is. - Vagrant); Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; Switzerland; Turks and Caicos Islands; Ukraine; United Kingdom; United States
Vagrant:Algeria; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Croatia; Greece; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Luxembourg; Malta; Mongolia; Montenegro; Morocco; Serbia (Serbia); Turkey
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The global population is estimated to number > c.40,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population sizes have been estimated at < c.1,000 wintering individuals and < c.50 individuals on migration in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Russia (Brazil 2009).|
Trend Justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-63.6% decline over 40 years, equating to a -22.3% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher a.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2012. Plectrophenax nivalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22721043A39922259.Downloaded on 24 October 2016.|
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