|Scientific Name:||Emberiza aureola Pallas, 1773|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C1 (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Ashpole, J, Burfield, I., Ieronymidou, C., Pople, R., Wheatley, H. & Wright, L|
European regional assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)
EU27 regional assessment: Critically Endangered (CR)
This bunting has undergone extremely rapid population declines in Europe that are estimated to exceed 80% within three generations. It is therefore classified as Critically Endangered. Within the EU27 it is now on the verge of extinction and it is also classified as Critically Endangered (A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd; C1).
|Range Description:||The species breeds across the northern Palaearctic and in Europe is found from Finland, Belarus and Ukraine in the west, through Russia (Byers et al. 1995) to the Ural Mountains in the east (Copete 2011).|
Native:Finland; Russian Federation (European Russia)
Vagrant:Belarus; Belgium; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Malta; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; United Kingdom
|Population:||The European population is estimated at 60-300 pairs, which equates to 120-600 mature individuals. The population in the EU27 is estimated at 0-1 pairs, which equates to 0-2 mature individuals. For details of national estimates, see the Supplementary Material.|
Trend Justification: In Europe and the EU27 the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 80% or more in 10.8 years (three generations) and by 25% or more in 3.6 years (one generation). For details of national estimates, see attached PDF.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Within Europe this species breeds in a wide range of moist or wet, fragmented habitats including river valleys, wet scrub-meadows and bogs. It also inhabits cultivated areas, light conifer plantations and dry meadows. Preferentially it occupies open wet meadows where willow, alder or birch are mixed with sedge, grass, marsh cinquefoil or similar vegetation. In the winter it is found in flocks on cultivated or poor-quality arable land and grassland (Hagemeijer and Blair 1997). The nest is built by the female alone and is placed either on the ground in a depression under tussocks or roots or slightly above ground in well covered vegetation. It is constructed of dry grass and stalks lined with soft grass, rootlets and sometimes hair. Clutch size can vary between three and seven but most commonly four to five. During breeding it feeds principally on invertebrates and seeds at other times of the year. Plant material is taken all year round. The species is migratory and has a very short breeding period arriving at its breeding grounds late June and leaving at the end of July. It winters in south-east Asia (Copete 2011).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||3.6|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Major Threat(s):||Since many populations on pristine breeding grounds have dropped rapidly, the decline is likely to be driven by excessive trapping at migration and, in particular, wintering sites (S. Chan in litt. 2003, P. Round in litt. 2003, M. Williams in litt. 2007, S. Chan in litt. 2007). Declines caused by pressures on the wintering grounds are compounded by a reduction in habitat quality on the breeding grounds in parts of its range, particularly drying of meadows caused by changes in the flow pattern of rivers, a result of dam construction upstream (O. Goroshko in litt. 2003, J. Kamp in litt. 2007).|
Conservation Actions Underway
CMS Appendix I. It is counted occasionally as part of on-going IBA monitoring in a few sites.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Implement a programme of co-ordinated range-wide monitoring at breeding, passage and non-breeding sites, in order to quantify the rate of decline. Through awareness campaigns, reduce the demand for the species as a food item, mascot and merit-bird. Research its precise habitat requirements on the wintering grounds. Protect sites which still hold large numbers on the wintering grounds.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2015. Emberiza aureola. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T22720966A60294370.Downloaded on 19 March 2018.|